## Electric Charge

A comprehensive mind map about electric charge with detailed notes.

A connection of all the topics covered in physics 2.

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A connection of all the topics covered in physics 2.

Download it or open it online in the editing mode to see all notes.

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Charge

Electric charge -one of the basic properties of the elementary particles of matter giving rise to all electric and magnetic forces and interactionQ= symbol Si unit= coulomb𝑒 = 1.602 𝑥 10−19𝐶

Charge Transfer

Three ways a charge can be transferred:Friction- when two uncharge objects rub together, some electrons from one objects can move onto anotherConduction- when a charge object touches another object. Electrons can be transferred between the objects. The object with the more negative charge to the one that has more positive charge. Insulators like metal transfer but wood would not.Induction- is a method used to charge an object without actually touching the object to any other charged object.

Charge Types: Postive and negative

Electric charge, which can be positive or negative, occurs in discrete natural units and is neither created nor destroyed. Electric charges are of two general types: positive and negative. Two objects that have an excess of one type of charge exert a force of repulsion on each other when relatively close together.

Static Electricity

Static electricity can be thought as a stationary electric charge that is built up on a material. - charge not moving

Electric field

Electric field An electric field is the physical field that surrounds each electric charge and exerts force on all other charges in the field, either attracting or repelling them. Electric fields originate from electric charges, or from time-varying magnetic fields.

Electric field lines

Electric field lines are imaginary lines or curves drawn through a region of space so that is tangent at any point is in thedirection of the vector at that point.The 𝐸 lines indicate the direction of theforce due the given field on a positivecharge.The closer the electric field lines are, the stronger the electric field in that regionFor all points in space with the same r, the magnitude of the electric field is the same, but not the 𝐸.

Coulomb's Law

Coulomb's law- the force of attraction or repulsion acting along a straight line between two electric charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the square of the distance between them.

Electric potential energy

Equipotential lines

An equipotential is a line or surface over which the potential is constant.An equipotential surface show the values where the electric potential is the same (i.e. constant).Equipotential surfaces are drawn to explore the values of electric potential around the charged distribution.The larger the electric potential value, the “higher” we said it is with respect to a reference value.

Equipotential surfaces

An equipotential surface has the same potential at every point on the surface. The potential difference between any two points on the surface is zero, and no work is requiredto move a charge from one point to the other.- The Electric field (or electric field lines) must be perpendicular to equipotential surface.- The surface of a conductor is an equipotential surface.- Equipotential lines and surfaces, unlike field lines are always continuous and never end.

Circuits

An electric circuits is any closed path along which electrons can flow.a Continuous flow of electrons through a circuit, there must be no open gaps or the electrons won't flow.

Ohms Law

Ohm's Law is a formula used to calculate the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in an electrical circuit.

Resistors

A resistor is a device having a designed resistance to the passage of an electric current

Resistance

resistance (R)- the ratio of the potential difference (voltage) Change V across a conductors to the current I through the materialmeasured in ohms 1 Ohm (Ω)=1 V/A

Current

A current (Symbol I)- a net amount of charge passing per unit time through an area perpendicular to the flow direction The Si unit is ampere (1A=1C/s

Magnetic Force

Magnetic force- attraction or repulsion that arises between electrically charged particles because of their motion.

Magnetic Field

A magnetic field- is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence on moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials. A moving charge in a magnetic field experiences a force perpendicular to its own velocity and to the magnetic field.Force/Charge X velocity= N/C*m/s=N/A*m1T=1 N/A*m

long straight Wire

B is the magnitude of the magnetic field. 𝜇0 is the permeability of free space and has a constant value of 4𝜋 𝑥 10−7 𝑇∙𝑚 𝐴 I is the current through the wire r is the distance from the wire to the particular point of interest

Circular Loop

The magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop is given by B=μ0I2R(at center of loop),where R is the radius of the loop. RHR-2 gives the direction of the field about the loop.

Solenoid

A solenoid is a long coil of wire wrapped in many turns. When a current passes through it, it creates a nearly uniform magnetic field inside. The magnetic field within a solenoid depends upon the current and density of turns.

Magnetic Force on a moving point charge

F is the magnetic force on a point charge. | q| is thee charge of the point particle B is the magnitude of the magnetic field the point particle is immerse in𝜃 is the angle between the velocity vector and the external magnetic

Voltage

Voltage is the pressure that triggers electron flow. V=Voltsymbol =E

Series

A series circuit is a closed circuit in which the current follows one paththe total voltage is the sum of the voltage drop each resistorThe current through each resistors is the same (V=V1+V2+V3)if one is disconnected the current to the other elements is stopped

Parallel

When one or more electrical devices are wired so that the potential difference across them is the same. A break in any path does not interrupt the flow of charge in the other pathsA device in each branch operates independently of the others the total current in the branches adds.

Kirchhoff's Rules

Kirchhoff's junction rules - states that sum of the currents that flow into a junction- any electric connection- must equal the sum of the current that flow out of the same junction.

Loop rule

Kirchhoff's loop rules- an expression of energy conservation applied to changes in potential in a circuit. The sum of the changes in potential around a closed loop is zeroA closed path is flowed in a circuit, beginning and ending at the same point, the algebraic sum of the potential changes must be zero

Light

Visible electromagnetic waves

Geometric optics

an approximation tot he behavior of light that applies only when interference and diffraction are negligible. For Diffraction to be negligible, the size of objects and apertures must be large relative to the wavelength of the light.

Reflection

Reflection- abrupt change in the direction of propagation of a wave that strikes the boundary between different mediums.

Specular

Specular reflection- reflection from a smooth surface: rays incident at a given angle all reflect at the same angle

Diffuse

Diffuse reflection- reflection from a rough, irregular surface.

Law of Reflection

The law of reflection states that when a ray of light reflects off a surface, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

Polarization

If light strikes an interface so that there is a 90o angle between the reflected and refracted rays, the reflected light will be linearly polarized. The direction of polarization (the way the electric field vectors point)is parallel to the plane of the interface0.

Brewster's Angle

Brewster's angle-The angel of incidence Unpolarized light is incident on a reflecting surface. The reflected beam is polarized. The refracted beam is perpendicular to the reflected beam.

Refraction

Refraction- the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another caused by its change in speed.

Law of Refraction

Law of Refraction- states that for a ray at a given incident angle, a large change in speed causes a large change in direction, and thus a large change in angle n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2.