My Learning of Computational Thinking (CT)CT and 21st Century Problem SolvingComputational ThinkingCT FacetsDefinitionVision“CT involves solving problems , designing systems, and understanding human behavior, by drawing on the concepts fundamental to computer science.” (Wing, 2006).A fundamental skill used by everyone by the middle of the 21st century (Wing,2006).DecompositionAbstractionAlgorithm DesignDebuggingBreakdown problems into smaller and more manageable parts, then focusing on solving each part of problem.Pulling out the important details and identifying principles that apply to other problems/situationsA sequence of steps for solving a problemImportantUse to describe solutions to problems.Computer programs execute algorithms to perform specific tasks.Identify and fix the error.GeneralizationIterationThe ability to move from specific to broader applicabilityRepeat design processes to refine solutions, until the ideal result is achieved.Product of CTAlgorithmic ThinkingCritical ThinkingProblem SolvingCooperativityCreativityThe ability to think in a detailed way by placing the proceedings in sequence to produce a solutionThe ability to analyse and make assessment oriented judgments that lead to decision makingThe ability to sustain in investigative processes by generating solutionsThe ability to help each other in learning with different methods in accordance with a common purposeThe ability to develop genuine ideas with the combination of existing ideas and new ideas through critical thinking and problem solvingCT in K-12 EducationDefinition of CT for K-12 Education CT is a problem-solving process that includes (but is not limited to) the following characteristics:Formulating problems in a way that enables us to use a computer and other tools to help solve themLogically organizing and analyzing dataRepresenting data through abstractions, such as models and simulationsAutomating solutions through algorithmic thinking (a series of ordered steps)Identifying, analyzing, and implementing possible solutions with the goal of achieving the most efficient and effective combination of steps and resourcesGeneralizing and transferring this problem-solving process to a wide variety of problems.Benefits of CTMoves students beyond technology literacyCreates problem solvers instead of software usersEmphasizes creating knowledge and designing processes that can be automatedEncourages creativity and problem solvingEnhances many of the problem-solving techniques you already know and teachHeuristicsHeuristics guide problem solvers by helping them simplify choices regarding the numerous immensely complex and imperfectly understood factors that act simultaneously to shape problems.Benefits of HeuristicsHeuristics can help produce results that are comparable to problem-solving strategiesHeuristics enhance efficiency regardless of whether the problem is well structured or ill structuredLimitations of HeuristicsHeuristics do not guarantee correct solutions to problemsOne type of misapplication commonly occurs when problem solvers use heuristics in situations where logic and probability theory would have been more effectiveIdeas for teaching CTUse computational thinking terms for everyday tasksEncourage students to critically examine and use informationAllow students to abstract and provide opportunities for students to transfer their learning to other situationsDo CT-building activities in classCT Practices and PerspectivesCT Plugged vs UnpluggedUnplugged - foundational in learning CTPluggedThe purpose of unplugged experiences are to introduce preliminary and overlapping concepts related to CT (either conceptually or technologically), during the experience.Unplugged experiences should be designed to be student-directed, kinesthetic, easily implemented, game-based, and with embedded challenges.With unplugged experiences, students are able to witness and experience the process required to complete a task, allowing them to put CT into a relatable contextCT involves concepts and practices primarily from computer science which are shared across other disciplines such as science, mathematics, social science, biology, language arts and engineeringSCRATCHSequencesLoopsParallelismEventsConditionalsOperatorsDataCT PracticesCT PerspectivesFocus on the process of thinking and learning, moving beyond what you are learning to how you are learning.4 practicesIncremental and IterativeTesting and DebuggingReusing and RemixingAbstracting and ModularizingDesigning a project is a sequential process of first identifying a concept for a project, then developing a plan for the design, and then implementing the design in code‘Scratchers’ use various testing and debugging practices, which were developed through trial and error, transfer from other activities, or support from knowledgeable others.Helping young designers to find ideas and code to build upon, enabling them to potentially create things much more complex than they could have created on their own.Building something large by putting together collections of smaller partsEmploy modularization and abstraction by separating out the different behaviors or actionsExpressingConnectingQuestioningUse for design and self-expression.Computation as a medium and thinksCreativity and learning are deeply social practicesThe value of creating with others, and the value of creating for othersAppreciated that others were engaging with and appreciating their creationsDo not feel this disconnect between the technologiesCan (use computation to) ask questions to make sense of (computational things in) the world.NUR SYAMIRA BINTI AZMI 197418