Presidential vs. Congressional Reconstruction

Reconstruction
Presidential
Congressional
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Full presidential pardons to most confederate officers who: 1. took oath of allegiance to the Union/Constitution 2. accepted the emancipation of slaves
Wade Davis Bill (1864)
Freedmen's Bureau
Instead of 10% plan, required 50% of voters of a state to take a loyalty oath, permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution
Acted as early welfare agency, providing food, shelter, medical aid for those destitute by the war
A state government could be accepted by the president if 10% of voters in a state took a loyalty oath
Lenient to shorten the war and enforce the emancipation proclamation
Lincoln did not sign, pocket veto
Originally could resettle blacks on confiscated land, but President Johnson pardoned the confederate owners so the land was given back to them
Success in education, General Oliver O. Howard, 3000 schools for freed blacks
Before federal funding stopped, 200,000 African Americans were taught how to read
Andrew Johnson's Pardons
Served as escape clause from 1865 reconstruction proclamation which stated that all former leaders and officeholders of the confederacy and confederates with more than $20,000 in taxable property could not vote or hold office.
Confederate leaders were back in office by fall 1865
Black Codes
Prohibited blacks from renting land or borrowing money to buy land
Placed freedmen into semi bondage by forcing them as “vagrants” and “apprentices” to sign work contracts
Prohibited blacks from testifying against whites in court
14th Amendment
Election of 1866
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson
15th amendment
Johnson's Vetos
Rejected bill increasing services and protection offered by Freedmen's Bureau and civil rights bill that nullified Black Codes and offered citizenship/equal rights to African Americans
Congressional reconstruction to override Johnson's vetos of Freedmen's Bureau Act and first Civil Rights act
General
-All persons born or naturalized in the US were citizens
-States must respect the rights of US citizens and protect them with “equal protection of the laws” and “due process of law”
Congress
-Disqualified former confederate political leaders from holding either state or federal offices
-Repudiated the debts of the defeated governments of the confederacy
-Penalized a state if it kept an eligible person from voting by reducing that state’s proportional representation in Congress and the electoral college
1st time states had to uphold the rights of citizens
2/3 republican majority in the house and senate
Increased requirements to rejoin the Union -- Had to ratify 14th amendment
Franchise (right to vote) to all adult males, regardless of race
South placed under military occupation, divided into 5 military districts
Andrew Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton, which was against the Tenure of Office act which stated that the President could not remove federal officials or military commanders without the approval of the Senate
Impeached by the House, but the Senate was one vote short
States cannot deny or abridge citizens right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Equal accommodation in public places and prohibited courts from excluding African Americans from juries
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