Reconstruction

Reconstruction
Presidential
*Lenient
Congressional
* harsher on Southern Whites & protective of freedpeople
*Abandoned in 1877
Lincoln's Policies
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
* Meant to have Unionist in office not secessionists
* Full presidential pardons would be granted to most Confederates who
1) Took an oath of allegiance to Union & U.S. Constitution
2) Accepted the emancipation of slaves
*A state government could be reestablished if 10% of voters took a loyalty oath
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
*Required 50% of voters of a state to take a loyalty oath
*Only non-Confederates could vote for a new state constitution
Freedmen's Bureau March 1865
*Acted as a welfare agency, provided food, shelter, medical aid for both Blacks& Whites
*Had authority to resettle freedpeople on confiscated farmlands (mostly failed due to Johnson's pardon of most Confederate owners
* General Oliver O.Howard established nearly 3,000 schools for freedpeople including colleges & taught 200,000 African Americans to read
Johnson's Policies
Disenfranchisement (loss to vote and hold office)
1) all former leaders and officeholders of the confederacy
2) Confederates with more than $20,000 in taxable property
President could grant pardons and many wealthy Confederates received them letting them return to office in 1865.
Veto
* Johnson vetoed 29 bills
* Vetoed bills that expanded services and protection of the Freedman's Bureau & a bill that nullified Black Codes and guaranteed full citizenship/equal rights to African Americans
* Marked the end of this Reconstruction Phase
Impact
* Restored 11 former Confederate States to Union
*ex-Confederates had returned to high office
*Southern states passed Black Codes to restrict rights of former slaves
Radical Republicans
* Wished to extend equal rights to all Americans
Moderates
* Looked for economic gain for White middle class
13th Amendment
*Slavery was banned from the U.S
*Former slaves could claim protection & has possibilities of freedom
Civil Rights Acts of 1866
*Repealed Johnson's vetoes and provided a shield against the operation of Black Codes
*Led to the 14th Amendment- June 1866
1) all people born in the U.S are citizens
2) States must respect the right of citizens with equal protection of laws
3) disqualified former Conferedate political leaders from holding states or federal offices
Refused the debts of the defeated governments of the Confederacy
4) Penalized states if it kept any eligible person form voting by reducing the states' representation Congess & Electoral College
Report of Joint Committee
*Reorganized Confederate states were not entitled to representation Congress
* Rejected Presidential plan
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
* Divided former Confederate states into 5 military districts each under the control of the Union army
*Had to ratify and guaranteed the right to vote no matter what race to gain readmission
15th Amendment- prohibited states to deny right to vote on account of race,color,or previous condition of servitude
Civil Rights Act of 1875
*Could not exclude African American from juries,hotels,railroads, and theaters (poorly enforced)
South
*Troops were withdrawn when Congress felt the states fulfilled its Reconstruction requirements
*Scalawags- a derogatory term for Southern Republicans
*Carpetbaggers- Northern Newcomers
* African American Legislators- Blanche K.Bruce & Hiram Revels in Senate and a dozen to Hous of Representatives. Revels was elected in 1870 to take the Mississippi Senate seat once held by Jefferson Davis
* Black Communities- Independent black churches and schools were established like Negro Baptist & African Methodist Episcopal churches and Howard, Atlanta, Fisk, and Morehouse Schools. Many migrated t the frontier. People reunited families and learned to read and write.
North
* Rise of Spoilsmen- politician (Roscoe Conkling & James Blaine) did patronage giving jobs & government favors to their supporters
*Corruption in Business and Government- Jay Gould, James Fisk, William Tweed masterminded schemes to profit themselves
* Credit Mobilier Affair- insiders gave the stock to influential members (Grant did not profit but his presidency was tarnished)
*Panic of 1837- Overspeculation led to business failures and depression
* Women's Roles- With men off fighting women took care of farms, factory jobs, and nurses.
*Women's Sufferage- New responsibilities boosted women's demand to vote. Those who worked tirelessly as abolitionists opposed the 14th and 15th amendment since it limited it to men
*1869 Wyoming Territory was the first territory to grant women full suffrage rights.
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