Classification Of Organisms

Classification Of Organisms
Major Phyla
Eubacteria
Aquiflexa
Cyanophyceae
Synechococcales
Cyanobacteria
Spirulina
Anabaena
Nostoc
Proteobacteria
Purple sulfur bacteria
Geobactor
Gammaproteobacteria
Alphaproteobacteria
Archeabacteria
Euryarchaeota
Methanobacteria
Haloarchaea
Thermoplasmatales
Crenarchaeota
Animals
Porifera
Demosponge
Calcareous
Hexactinellid
Silliceous sponge
Cnidarians
Jellyfish
Sea anemone
Anthozoa
Box jellyfish
Flatworms
Trematoda
Cestoda
Turbellaria
The food chain
Mollusks
Octopus
Squid
Cuttlefish
Scallop
Chiton
Bivalvia
Roundworms
Enoplea
Adenophorea
Ascaridida
Secernentea
Chromadorea
Arthropods
Insect
Arachnid
Butterflies and moths
Scorpion
Crab
Crustacean
Echinoderms
Starfish
Sea urchin
Sea cucumber
Sand dollar
Brittle star
Rotifers
Euchlanis
Asplanchna
Conochilus
Protista
Rhodophyta
Coralline algae
Rhodophyceae
Florideae
Gelidiaceae
Chrysophyta
Ochromonadales
Chrysosphyaerales
Phyrrophyta
Dinophyceae
Syndiniales
Fungi
Chytrids
Zygomycota
Rhizopus stolonifer
Asomycota
Monascus
Colletotrichum
Verticillium
Basidimycota
Rust
Boletales
Ramaria
Geastrales
Plants
Hepatophyta
Complex thalloids
Porella
Jungermanniales
Anthocerophyta
hornworts
Gametyphyotes
Lycophyta
Isoetales
Selaginellales
Lepidodendron
Domains of Life
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Bacteria
Comes in 3 different shapes: coccus,
bacillus or spirillum
Has a cell wall which contains
peptidoglycan
It is either arranged in: Diplo (pairs),
Statphlo (Clumps) or Strapto (strings)
Most are heterotrophic
Are either: Obligate Aerobes (bacteria that
need oxygen to live), Facultative Aerobes
Their lifestyle is either: unicellular, colony or
filamentous
Archaea
they inhabit extreme environments such as
hot springs, arctic ice, highly acidic water,
intestines of mammals
They do not cause diseases unlike bacteria
oldest organism on earth
cell membrane and cell wall lack
peptidoglycan
reproduces through binary fission and
conjugation
has no cell wall
Eubacteria
single or multi cellular organisms
genetic material organized into a nucleus
possess organelles
huge range in diversity
are enclosed by a cell wall
Kingdoms
Eubacteria
Are prokaryotic
Are unicellular
contains peptidoglycan layer
autotrophs/ heterotrophs
does binary fission as its primary means of
reproduction
Three morphologies: cocci, rod and spiral
Cocci: diplo
Rod: Mycobacteria
Archeabacteria
archaea cell walls and cell membranes are much more resistant to physical and
chemical disruptions
Archaea contains polysaccharides and
proteins
Lacks peptidoglycan
Unicellular and prokaryote
Autotroph/Heterotroph
Representative species: Methanogens, halophiles, extreme thermophiles and
physcrophilles
Protista
Eukaryote
Unicellular or multicellular
cellulose in some; occasionally no cell wall
autotrophs/ heterotrophs
reproduce asexually/sexually
Gymnosperm: (ex: cycas)
Photoautotrophs chloroplasts: can do
photosynthesis and eat food.
Heterotrophs. Mixotrophs three
feeding approaches have arisen
independently multiple times
The three feeding strategies are: animal
like, fungilike and plantlike protists
Fungi
Are eukaryote
Mostly multicellular
Cell wall made from chitin
Mostly heterotrophs
Usually reproduce sexually
5 major phyla: Chytridiomycota,
Zygomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota,
Basidiomycota
major decomposers on earth, produce
important antibiotics and are natural
pesticides
3 types of fungal nutrition: Parasitic,
Predatory and Mutualistic
Plants
have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll
cell walls which are rich in cellulose
Plants are generally autotrophic
oxygen evolving photosynthesis
Bryophytes: (ex: rica)
Seedless vascular: (ex: club
mosses)
Angiosperm: (ex: sunflower)
Animals
are eukaryote
multicellular
heterotrophs: feeds on plants,animals ,
fungi, protists and each other
use oxygen for aerobic respiration
do not have a cell wall
usually motile or the ability to move in
atleast one stage of their life
reproduce sexually
produce an embryo that undergoes stages
Chordates
1. Tunicate
Examples: Ascidians, Copelata, Larvacea
2. Vertebrate
3. Cephalochordate
Mammals
1. Monotremes
warm blooded
high metabolic rate
have hair on their bodies
produce milk through mammary glands to
feed their youngs
have a single bone in their lower jaw
have three middle ear bones
Examples: Echidnas, Duck billed platypuses
2. Marsupials
most of the young children are carried in
pouches
A young marsupial is born after only a few
weeks as an embryo
It has large front paws that it uses to climb
through the mother's fur to reach the
pouch.
Examples: Kangaroos, Koalas, Possums,
Wombats and Tasmanian devils
3. Placentals
Largest group
have 4000 different species
Examples: Humans, elephants, whales,
shrews, dogs and cats, horses, cattles
exchange of nutrients and wastes between
the blood of the mother and that of the
fetus
The placentals include all living mammals
except marsupials and monotremes.
Arthropods
3 major subphyla
1. Hexapoda
Examples: Insects
2. Crustacea
Examples: lobsters, crabs and shrimps
3. Chelicerata
Examples: spiders and scorpions
Vertebrates
1. Class Agnatha
Examples: Jawless vertebrates, Lampreys
2. Class Chondrichthyes
Example: Cartilaginous fish
3. Class Osteichthyes
Examples: Bony fish
4. Class Amphibia
Examples: Amphibians
5. Class Reptilia
Examples: reptiles
6. Class Aves
Example: Birds
7. Class Mammalia
Example: mammals
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