Learning Design and Technology

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Learning design and technology
S1: Instructional design and design of learning
Learning theories
Behavioral
Identifying small, incremental tasks or subskills which the learner needed to acquire for successful completion of the instruction
Preparing specific behavioral objectives which would lead to the acquisition of those subskills
Sequencing subskill acquisition in the order which would most efficiently lead to successful learner outcomes
Cognitivism
The view of learning as active, constructive process
The presence of high-level processes in learning
The cumulative nature of learning and the corresponding role played by prior knowledge
Concern for the way knowledge is represented and organized in memory
concern for analyzing learning tasks and performance in terms of the cognitive processes that are involved
Constructivism
Individual constructivism
Knowledge is constructed from experience
Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge
Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience
Social constructivism
Learning is collaborative with meaning negotiated from multiple prespectives
Instructional theories
Elaboration theory
Instruction should proceed form the general to the specific (sequencing)
Each part should be related to the general context and to the other parts (synthesizing)
Linking theory
Educational goals
Learning objectives
Instructional prescriptions
Expository
Practice
Problem-orented
Complex-dynamic
Self-directed experiences
The educational goals is the allocation of academic learning time by defined learning objectives
Conversation theory
Attempts to explain learning in both living organisms and machines
Learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit
Applies to the learning of any subject matter
Activities
Gagne's nine events of instruction
Gain attention
Inform learners of objectives
Stimulate recall of prior learning
Present the content
Guide learning
Elicit performance (practice)
Provide feedback
Asses performance
Enhance retention and transfer
Sequence
Revised Bloom's Taxonomy
Creating
Generating
Planning
Producing
Evaluating
Checking
Critiquing
Analysing
Differentiating
Organizing
Attributing
Applying
Executing
Implementing
Understanding
Interpreting
Exemplifying
Classifying
Summarizing
Inferring
Comparing
Explaining
Remembering
Recognizing
Recalling
Objectives
Design Stage
Instructional theory adopted
Learning objectives (outcomes)
Sequence of learning activities
Format of learning materials
Selection of method and tactics
Competency assessments
Selection of e-learning tools
A tool for project planing
Prototype
Proof-of principle prototype
Form study prototype
User experience prototype
Visual prototype
Functional prototype
Storyboard
Passive storyboards
sketches
pictures
screen shots
PPT
Screen shots
Business rules
Output
Active storyboards
an automated description
Slideshow
Animation
Simulation
Video
Interactive storyboards
a realistic and practical way
require participation by the user
Live demo
Interactive presentation
Flowchart
Document flowcharts
Data flowcharts
System flowcharts
Program flowchart
Technology support
Active world/ second life
Scratch
Edmodo
Bubbl.us, Mind42 or mindmeister
Technology
Technology tools
Word Processor
Spreadsheet software
Image editor
Digital capture tool
Authoring tool
etc.
Psychological tools
Learning objects
Web pages
E-books
etc.
Psycho-technical tools
Mind mapping tools
MindManager model
Construction tool
Stella
Interactive physics
etc.
Technical tools become psycho-technical when provided in a learning activity and used in transformation of educational material
S2: Instructional design model (IDM)
ADDIE model
Analysis
Assessment
Project plan
Goals
Design
Audiences
Objectives
Task analysis
Strategy
Prototypes
Development
Outline content
Select media
Select technology
Select delivery
Develop materials
Implementation
Deliver
Experiment
Integration
Evaluation
Evaluation plan
Testing
Reviews
Dick and Carey system approach
Identify instructional goals
Conduct instructional analysis
Analyze audiences
Write performance objectives
Develop assessment instruments
Develop instructional strategy
Develop and select instruction materials
Design and conduct formative evaluation of instruction
Revise instruction
Design and conduct summative evaluation
Kemp design model
ASSURE model
Analyze learners
State objectives
Select methods, media, and materials
Utilize media and materials
Require learner participation
Evaluate and revise
Waterfall model
Requirements
Product requirements document
Design
software architecture
Implementation
Software
Verification
Maintenance
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