Ecology

Ecology
Food Web &
Trophic Levels
Trophic levels
Sun
Producers (1000 kcal)
Primary consumers (100 kcal)
Secondary consumers (10 kcal)
Tertiary consumers (1 kcal)
The energy level at which an organism is
feeding at in a food chain
Only 10% of energy gets passed to the
next level
<--energy gets lost through
Heat
Reproduction
Decaying organisms
Excretement
Feeding
Limiting factors
Diseases and parasites
Weather
Fires
Available habitat
Preadators
Food chain
a diagram of how energy is passed from
one organism to the other by feeding
Abiotic
Sun
Water
Nutrients
soil
minerals
Biotic
Primary consumer
Herbivore
Secondary consumer
Omnivore
Tertiary consumer
Carnivore
Producer
Decomposer
A food web is many interconnected food
chains
needs to stay in balance to stay
sustainable. invasive species can put
pressure on that
habitat
Carrying capacity maximum population
size that can sustain indefinitely in an
environment. Given the food, habitat and
water
Ecological niche
Bioaccumilation &
biomagnification
Bioaccumilation
The ingestion of toxins within an organism
at a rate faster than they are eliminated
Biomagnification
Concentration of a toxin magnifies as it
goes through the food chain
Biotic & Abiotic
Abiotic: non-living physical and chemical
components of ecosystem
Biotic: the living components of an eco
system including relationships and products
Biotic relationships
Symbiosis
Mutualism
Commensalism
Parasitism
Predation
Population
Community
Competition
Abiotic
Invasive Species
Any organism that is not native to an
ecosystem and causes harm to that
ecosystem
Some examples in Ontario include
the purple loosestrife, garlic
mustard, buckthorns, emerald ash
borer, zebra mussels, dog
strangling vine and reed canary
grass
food webwhen invasive species enter a
foreign food chain they can have a serious
impact. since the species has no natural
predators they will become overpopulated
an start to eat and over-consume the
wildlife of the food chain causing a trickle
down effect that could completely destroy
the web
Photosythesis and
cellular respiration
They are opposite operations
Photosynthesis
a process in which the plant turns
solar energy to chemical energy
the product of photosynthesis is what is
used for cellular respiration
Chloroplast cell organelle. contains...
chlorophyll green pigment
only in daytime due to sun
Cellular respiration
a process which releases energy from
carbohydrates in the form of oxygen
mitochondria the powerhouse of the cell,
where energy is produced (respiration)
day and night because cellular respiration
does not rely on the sun
the product of cellular respiration is what is
used in photosynthesis
Carbon Cycle
Lithosphere
Fossil fuels
& Limestone
Hydrosphere
Calcium carbonate &
Carbonic acid
Atmosphere
CO^2
Biosphere
Organic material
Fossil fuels
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
Carbon Sources
Extracting fossil fuels
Burning fossil fuels
Cellular Respiration
Volcanoes
there needs to be the same amount of
carbon sources and carbon sinks for there
to be balance
Carbon sinks
Forests
Ocean
there needs to be the same amount of
carbon sinks and carbon sources for
there to be balance
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