Unit 4-Sensation and Perception

Unit 4-Sensation and Perception
Principles of Visual Perception
Gestalt Rules
Several Factors influence how we will group
objects
Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure
Constantcy
Our ability to maintain a constant perception of
an object despite movement
Size constancy, Shape constancy, Brightness
constancy
Perceived Motion
Ability to gauge motion
Depth Cues
Monocular Cues
Linear Perspective, Relative Size, Interposition
Cue, Texture Gradient
Binocular Cues
Binocular Disparity, Convergence
Perceptual Theories
Signal Detection Theory
Investigates the effects of the distractions and
interference we experience while perceiving the
world
Top-Down Processing
We perceive by filling in gaps in what we sense
Bottom-Up Processing
We use the features of the object itself to build
a complete perception
Smell
Olfaction
Molecules settle in a mucous membrane at the
top of each nostril and are absorbed by
receptor cells located there
Olfactory bulb
Olfactory receptors
Thalamus
Touch
Gate Control Theory
Some pain messages have a higher priority than
others
Taste
Taste buds absorb the chemicals from the food
we eat
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
Hearing
Amplitude
height of the wave and determines the loudness
of the sound
Frequency
the length of the waves, determines the pitch
Outer ear, eardrum, hammer, anvil, stirrup,
cochlea, hair cells
Pitch Theories
Place Theory: the hair cells in the cochlea
respond to different frequencies of sound based
on where they are located in the cochlea
Frequency Theory: hair cells sense the upper
range of pitches but not the lower ones
Vision
Order of reflected light in eyes: Cornea, pupil,
lens, retina
Accommodation: light that enters the pupil is
focused by the lens
Transduction: translation of incoming stimuli
into neural signals
Visual Cortex
Trichromatic Theory
We have three types of cones in the retina
Opponent Process Theory
Sensory receptors arranged in the retina come
in pairs (red/green, yellow/blue, black/white)
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