Mastering Biology Chapter 6-Tour of a Cell

Mastering Biology Chapter 6: Tour of a Cell
Concept 6.7 Connection between
cells
Plant cell walls
made of cellulose (polysaccharide)
protects each cell
provides support for plants weight
Plasmodesmata connects cells thru PCW
prevents isolation
prevents excessive uptake of H2O
found in prokaryotes fungi
some unicellular Eukaryotes
Secondary
between plasma membrane
primary wall cell protection & support
Primary
thin & flexible
cell growth
cellulose, pectin and hemicellulose
Middle Lamella
thin & sticky
Polysaccharides
pectin
Animals' extracellular matrix
Matrix (embedded)
like a skeleton outside cell
holds tissue together
communicates w/ cells
affects gene expression
made largely of glycoproteins
proteins + carbs
collagen
most abundant/main ingredient
strong; hanging on matrix
regulates cell behavior
Intergrins
proteins binding cell membrane to ECM
Connected to cytoskeleton
Cell junctions in animal cells
1. Tight
makes a layer of cells fluid tight
2. Anchoring
desmosomes
like bolting
very strong connections
3. Gap
allow transport
communication
have gaps
heart muscles
Plasmodesmata
in plants
Concepte 6.6 Cytoskeleton
Cell Skeleton
shape to cell
Movement of organelles/whole cell
activity of cell
extending thru cytoplasm
organizing structure
Microfilaments
Actin(globular protein)
holds things together
easily movable
provides shape
microvilli
3D network
myosin & actin filaments in muscle
eukaryotic cells bear tenison
pulling force
Intermediate filaments
cable structure of several proteins
permanent
long term structure to cell
remain after cell death
Keratin in skin
reinforcing shape
fixing position of cell
certain organelles
Microtubules
tubulin
cilia
large #s
flagella
few cells, longer
Both move fuild over the suface of tissue
vesicles & organelles travel
differ in beating patter
uses ATP for energy
organize chromosomes during cell divison
unstable ends are different
+end grows & disassembles faster
-end grows&disassembles slower
length can change rapidly
coverage on centrosome(near nucleus)
go out supporting cell
providing tracing from center to surface cell
Concept 6.5 Engery-Converting
Organelles
1. Mitochondria
All eukaryote cells
cellular respiration
outer & inner membrane (Cristae)
own circular DNA
only inherited from female parent
Plants can be from both parents
Use energy from sugars
ATP(andenosine triphosphate)
immediate energy source
stores & releases energy
mDNA
free ribosomes
reproduce in cells
Matrix
DNA & ribosomes enclosed by the inner
membrane
need to make things between 2 membranes
2. Chloroplast
some plant cells
fruit, root plants & animals don't have it
3 layers of outer & inner membrane
own circular DNA
Filled w/thick fluid=stroma
where sugars are born
DNA & ribosomes
contain stacks(granum) of thylakoids
chlorophyll inside
chlorophll collects sunlight
using stored energy
mitochondrion
can't surivie on its own. too dependent
3.Peroxisomes
oxidation organelles
single membrane
many oxidation reactions
Remove H from various molecules using O
Hyroden peroxide
H2O2
Converts to H20
Prepare fatty acids for mitochondria
detox
Glyoxysomoes
special version of peroxisomes in fat titssue
fats to sugar
Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic vs
Prokaryotic (Pg 100-101)
ALL CELLS HAVE
Plasma Membrane
Cell Membrane
Barrier
passage of oxygen, nurtirents & waste
it makes itself
phospholidpis form double layer in water
Light Microscope
self healing
Can pinch of parts form membrane bubbles
in or out of cell
Cytosol
gel-like liquid
Chromosomes
Protein recipes
Ribosomes
Protein markers
Cell Fractionation
to separation different organelles to study
their function separate from the rest of the
cell
Prokaryotes
Small, singles cell oragnisms
Bacteria & Archaea
No membrane around DNA (nucleoid)
Lack an internal membrane compartment
Major difference
Location of DNA
Eukaryotes
Larger, multicellular
some unicellular(Protist)
Animal Cells
Membrane bound
Nuclues
other organelles
Double lay of phospholipids & other lipids
Cytosol
semi fulid
jelly like
Cytoplasm
between nucleus and plasma membrane
nucleus has its fluid
Fungi
not plants
mushrooms, Penicillin, yeast, mycorrhizae
cell wall
no chloroplasts
Heterotrophic
Concept 6.3 Genetic Information:
Nucleus to Ribosomes
Nucleus
where proteins begin
DNA recipes for every protein
one gene
Ribsomes are made here
DNA locked inside nucleus
mRNA is working copy
Genes and other DNA
Most genes in eukoryotic cells
Chromosomes are the stuctes that carry
gentic info
Chromatin is the protein that makes up
chromosomes
Connection to rough ER
Nuclear membrane is 2 double layers of
phospholipids
double membrane w/ a gap
between them
Envelope
nuclear pore
Each pore is ringed by protein particles
Nuclear envelope
enclosed nucles
sperating contents from the
cytoplasm
Nuclear lamina
Intermediate filaments
shape of nucleus by
mechanically supporting the NE
Ribosomes
Read mRNA copies of DNA's
instructions
made in nucleus
free or bound from nucleus
translate instruction into
proteins
Not membrane bound
not considered organells
protein synthesis
Free in cytosol
bound outside nuclear envelope
Concpet 6.1: Studying the Cell
3 Paramters of control amount of informatin in a
micrscope image
Magnigication
Ratio of image size to object size
Light Microscope
Resolution
The minimum distance between two
distinguishable points
Contrast
Visible range of brightness
Types of
Microscopes
Electron Microscope
Beam of electron thru the specimen or into
its surface
Trasmisson
thin samples
electrons thru samples
heavy metal staining
Scanning
Thicker samples
Depth of image
Gold-plated sample
Concept 6.4 Endomembrane
System
interconnected tubes,sac,tiny
floating vesicles
Change shape and size
Separate contents frm rest of cytoplasm
1. Nuclear enevlope
2. Endoplasmic Reticulum
Storage, manufacturing, and
making
Smooth
Rough
Has bound ribosomes all over it
makes protein for export
protein synthesis
makes more membrane
Glycoproteins
carbs attached to proteins
Enzymes make lipids(steroids)
detoxifitions (add -OH)
Drug resistance
Store Ca+
Lacks ribosomes its outsuface
phospholipids
3. Golgi apparatus
finishes, packages, sorts and ships
Vesicles from ER to GA
Stack of flat sacs
cisternae
each layer further modifies products
final layer sorts into vesicles for transport
proteins are modified and stored
refines product of ER
4. Lysosomes
looks like a vacuoles
digestive cells
Phagocytosis
contain enzymes that break down chemical
bonds
sent to other places for cell specilaization
secretion
Recycle organelles
autophagy
self eating
self destruct cell
autolysis
part of development
common in animals
in plants sometimes???
4. Vacuoles
"little emptiness"
actually full of water/ clear liquid
Large vesicles
often storage/organization
food,water, toxins(process of eating)
contractile vacuole
squirting H20 out of cell
some & others connected vial
travelling vesicles
50% of membrane in many cells
Vesicles of membrane bubble off to wherever
the membrane( Vesicles contents) are
needed.
Membrane grows, not stactic
dynamic(Moving, shifitng, growing,
shrinking)
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