(8) Scaling and Instrument Design

(8) Scaling & Instrument Design
# [(8) Scaling & Instrument Design](https://mm.tt/1627441633)
The Feel Good Store (Project)
Instrument Design
Scale Sequencing and Layout
start the questionnaire with simple and interesting question
provide clear and easy-to-read instructions if necessary
ask sensitive and classificatory information last
lay out the questionnaire so that it is easy to read and follows the flow of the questionning process
Online Design Aids
i.e. the Internet
Pros:
helps to structure the questionnaires
help eliminate bias
helps with the collection of data
provide other add-on services
Pretesting and Correcting
once drafted, the instrument should be pretested
corrections can be made to the instrument from results of the pretest
Scale Development
simple vs complex scales
one-item or multiple-item scales
complex is preferred enhanced reliability and validity
which variables should be measured?
what are the "right" questions to be asked?
Item Phrasing
is the item necessary?
is it needed in the solution of the research problem?
how will the item be asked?
interpretation of what is asked is crucial
should the item be openor closed-ended?
open-ended items allow respondants to answer freely
closed-ended items limit the answers from respondants
how should the item be worded?
keep it simple
Response Formats
what response alternatives should be used?
in what order should the alternatives be stated?
how will "don't know", "no answer", and "neutral answer" responses be handled?
Frequently Used Scaling Instruments
rating scales
graphic rating scales
i.e. thermometer chart
itemized rating scales
select a category from a limited amount
comparative rating scales
rate against a standard
attitude scales
likert scale
indicate degree of agreement or disagreement
semantic differential
5or 7-point bipolar adjectives
Nature of Instrument Design
what to include and exclude?
relevance
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