hypertension

hypertension
by ali ahmed
renin angiotensin aldosterone
system
treatment
life style modification
Weight
maintain normal body weight
Diet
rich in fruits ,vegetables ,grains , low fat
dairy products ...low in fat , cholesterol and
sodium
Salt
reduce dietary sodium to no
more than 2.4 g/day
Exercise
walking (30 min/day)
Alcohol
limit to no more than 2
drinks/day for men & 1 drink for
women
Drugs
ACE inhibitors
lower arteriolar resistance and
increase venous capactiance
profound
hypotension after first dose
causes mild dry mouth
C/I : in renal artery stenosis
Check renal function after every
change of dose
EX: Capoten & Enalapril
ARBs
directly cause vasodilataion
&reduce secretion of
aldosterone
used with patients who
cannot tolerate ACE
inhibitors
Ex: losartan
CCBs
causes of arteriolar dilatation and
reduces force of cardiac contraction
S.E : headache , sweating ,
dizziness
Ex: Amlodipine , diltiazem
Diuretics
thaizide
inhibit Na/Cl Co-transport
affect serum cholesterol
&glucose level
S.E: low K
Ex: chlorothaizide
Manifestations
Headache
Vision changes
Dizziness
Chest pain
Confusion
Nausea
Sweating
Normal range
<130/<85 mmHg
Risk Factors
Age & Sex
Environmental
High Na intake
High K intake
Potassium helps balance the
amount of sodium in your cells
low Ca intake
Obesity
Tobacco usage
Stress
Family & Genetics
complications
cardiovascular disease
myocardial infarction
Angina
Heart Failure
atherosceleroses
cerebrovascular disease
cerebral hemorrage
Brain attack
kidney disease
kidney failure
end stage renal disease
retinal damage
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