Biology (Semester I)
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Biology (Semester I)
Natural selection is the process of which an individual with a traitthat favours its environment will be more suited to live in it andthus those who don't have said trait will perish.
A simple example would be how if a mutation occured on an insect who lived in agrassy environment and was normally brown that made it green, it would be lesssusceptable to predators finding it and thus that trait will survive while others don't.
When a species is divided and put in differentenvironments, the environment will greatly differthe species from one another.
Evidence for Evolution
Primate and Human Evolution
Inheritance of Genotypes and Phenotypes and Genetic Disorders
There are many traits that canbe passed down from yourparents.
Depending on the trait, there will betraits that are either dominant orrecessive.
For example, brown eyes are a dominant eyecolour while blue eyes are a recessive eyecolour.
The phenotype, which is thetechnical name for a trait
Phenotypes are defined by yourgenotype.
Determining a Trait
Your parents will carry the trait themselves, anddepending on where they stand on it you can takeon that trait or an entirely different one.
If the genotype for your trait is homozygous, thenit is either completely dominant or completelyrecessive.
If it is heterozygous, you have both a dominantand a recessive showing and thus the dominanttrait will show.
To determine the probability of what traita child could have, we use PunnetSquares.
A Punnet Square is a visual methodthat helps us determine traitpossibilities.
Generally, you make a column and a row for each gene thataffects the trait, and then put every possible combination in eachcolumn and row, then combine them in the squares to show if youare homozygous or heterozygous.
Ended up using pea plants, pea plants are goodbecause they have a number of characteristicsthat are easily definable and can breed quickly.
Law of Segregation
Law of Independent Assortment
The name of the first generation isalways called the P generation for theparents.
They're children are the F1 generationand the grandparents are the F2generation.
Mendel noticed that sometimes when the P hada purple and a white flower, the F1 is alsopurple.
Mendel observed many different traits in thepea plants including pea colour, pod colour, rounded vs. wrinkled pod, etc.
He observed that some traits, such as a roundedpea, would show up more than a different trait,such as a wrinkled pea.
This is because some traits showdominance over other traits, which wouldbe recessive.
However, sometimes two traits will showcodominance where the two traits both show up,such as in blood type when a type A and a type Bgive a type AB child.
Incomplete dominance is where both traits are &quot;there&quot; such as ared and white flower making a pink flower. Contrasted withcodominance, codominance would show red and white spolchesof colour on the flower in the same situation.
Some disorders are located on certain sexesbecause they are located on the 23rdchromosome, also called the sex chromosome.
These disorders are harder to predict, butmales are very susceptable to thesediseases.
This is because women have two X chromsomes, allowing forany disorders to be easily corrected. Men do not have thesecond X, so they are more susceptable to the diasease notbeing corrected.
In other words, Girls 1 Boys 0
You can still use a Punnet Square todetermine the likelihood, however it isn'tperfect.
Colour blindness is sex-linkedand more susceptable withmales.
Others include hemophilia, Duchennemuscular dystrophy, and Turnerssyndrome.
Lupus has been linked to mostly females, and while we don'thave much information on how disorders are linked with certaingenes, research in this is helping advance all areas of disorderresearch.
As long as there is there is one copy of themutated gene, it will show up in the genotypeas dominant.
Huntington's Disease is a very infamous onebecause you do not show symptoms till you are atleast 40 years of age, allowing you to pass it oneasily.
Anthropomorphism, or dwarfism,is a dominant condition as well.
In order for a recessive disorder to be passed, itmust show two copies of the mutated gene or itwill not be passed down.
Sickle cell anemia, which is a one letter mistakein genetic code, is recessive and will only showup if it is a homozygous recessive.
Other recessive disorders includecystic fibrosis Tay-Sachs disorder, andPKU.
Nonharmful phenotypes are determinedthe same way, such as wet vs. dryearwax.
Molecular Biology and DNA Manipulating Equipment
Micropipettes are used to to take a smallamount of fluid and get exact measurementswith various substances
There are four different types of micropipettes,each with a different range of how much liquidthey can hold. This is measured in microliters(μ)
Mixtures are stored in microtubeswhen they need to be stored in smallamounts.
These microtubes, if the substances they hold wantto be seperated, are loaded into a centrifuge whichspins them at high velocties and sperates thechemicals
This is a device often used in seperating bloodcells from other things in blood like plasma,etc.
A centrifuge must be balanced, orit will destroy the motor and notwork.
If you need to identify the components of asubstance using suspected chemicals, you canuse gel electrophorisis.
Loading substances into small wells formed in gel and runningelectricity through it seperates the substances by polarity, size,and charge.
Is generally used for substance identification and DNAmatching, seeing if DNA on a person matches someone elseDNA or if parental DNA matches the child.
Genetics (DNA Coding)
The DNA helix is like a spiraled ladder. Thesturdy backbone is made of sugars andphosphate groups.
Linking across the bases arefour different types ofnucleiotides.
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
Adenine will ONLY link with Thymine, vice versa,and Cytosine with ONLY link with Guanine, viceversa.
DNA repliction occurs in the middle ofinterphase, during a part of it called the Sphase.
Enzymes unzip DNA like a zipper and nucleotidescome in, binding with the now available RNA and theyhave to be identical because of how nucleotidesbond.
When a cell is working, it generates protiens tomake up more cells and do other functions,etc.
In order to make proteins, a code has to be given.This code is the DNA. However, DNA cannot fitthrough nuclear pores, so a different process mustoccur.
Enzymes unzip the section of DNA whereproteins will need to be coded for. Then thestrand of RNA is sent out of the nucleus and theDNA is repaired.
Before the RNA is sent out, it is matched by a set ofnucleotides, however anything that will be thymine isreplaced with Uracil. This will happen twice to thestrand.
Once the RNA is out, it floats around until it findsone of the many ribosomes litered throughout therough endoplasmic reticulum.
Once it goes through a ribosome, groups of three nucleotidescalled &quot;codons&quot; are matched with an anticodon that has thenucleotides that match it on one end and an amino acid on theother.
These amino acids link together with peptide bondsand form the protein that the DNA codes for.
Photosyntesis, Glycolysis, and Cellular Respiration
The first thing that happens isa photon hits the plant
In the chlorophyll, the photon excites an electronthrough photoexcitation, causing the electron to breakoff, thus starting the process. Because of this, twothings happen.
The electron is taken around bythe electron transport chain.
Proteins that are designed to move electronstransfer electrons and use them to turn NAP+into NAPH
The chlorophyll freaks out overthe fact it lost an electron.
Using the water the plant is given, it splits thewater molecule and stores hydrogen isotopes,or just the protons
The oxygen is a by-product thatgets released through thestomata.
The protons are sent to the thylakoids, where theybuild up in energy till they can't take it anymore andhave to leave through an enzyme called ATP synthase
This creates ATP for energy
Photosynthesis utilizes threethings and transforms it
The three things are glucose,sunlight, and water
Plants really dig the colours redand blue
They make oxygen (which webreath) as a byproduct of this
The general breaking down of sugars and is anaerobic, whilethe rest of cellular respiration is aerobic and requires oxygen
Fermentation takes different forms. There aremainly two types of fermentation, alcoholicfermentation, and lactic acid fermentation.
In alcoholic fermentation, alcohol is the by-productof NAD+ mixing with pyruvates in certainspecies
In other species, such as every single mammal,lactic acid fermentation does the same thing,only lactic acid is produced.
Lactic acid is responsible formaking our muscles sore after aworkout
The process breaks up the glucose into two pieces ofpyruvic acids
Glycolysis uses 2 ATP and some glucose to yield 4ATP, 2pyruvates, and 2 NADH
Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions responsiblefor turning biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosinetriphosphate. (ATP is REALLY IMPORTANT.)
The Kreb's cycle takes the pyruvate moleculesand reworks them into 2 more ATP molecules(per glucose molecule)
It works by, first, oxygen binds with one of the carbons from thepyruvate moleclue, leaving behind something called acetylcoenzyme A with a by-product of carbon dioxide
Some NAD+ is floating around, so it might as well be turned into two moremolecules of NADH
1 glucose molecule can yield six NADH molecules and twoFADH2 molecules
Some energy is also created
Citric acid is a by-product of thisprocess, so it is also called the &quot;CitricAcid Cycle&quot;
Electron Transport Chain
In the membrane of the mitochondria, electronsfrom the NADH are sent to power electronpumps.
Protons from within the mitochondria are sentthrough the chain into an area with very littleroom to move around.
The electrons diffuse through an enzyme calledATP synthase, where the electrons' energies areused to squish ATP together.
The Cell Membrane and Transport
The Cell Membrane
The cell membrane is made of abunch of phospholipids lined upto create a membrane
The lipid molecules have a polar headand a non-polar tail.
There are two layers of this with theheads pointing in opposite directions.This the the phospholipid bilayer.
The bilayer is set up like this for&quot;selective permeability&quot;, making sureonly stuff the cell wants gets in.
In between these two layers in floatingcholesterol.
The membrane is littered withrandom channel proteins.
Channel proteins use passivetransport to allow water and oxygen in
They are basically gaps where watercan get in, and water knows to do itbecause the insides are hydrophilic.
Most chemicals get into the cellusing active transport.
Active transport is normally used to battlediffusion and combat the concentrationgradient.
Almost any movement your cells dowhen transporting needs a handy littlemolecule of ATP to power it.
Many channel proteins are more like gateways. You fill the insideof the protein up with your chemical, you then pay a small fee ofATP, and your chemical is allowed in, picking up stuff that needsto go out and then letting it out when the next customer comes.
Using vesicles (also made ofphospholipids) helps gets things in and outof the cell.
The cell uses a vesicle to carry a chemical tothe phospholipid cell membrane, where thevesicle and membrane fuse, releasing thechemical
An example of this is this is the way your bodyreleases neurotransmitters like dopamine andserotonin.
This happens with white blood cells, where they will detect aharmful invader, capture it, suck it inside of them and usevesicles to take it to a place where it will get an &quot;unholy beatdown of enzymes and chemicals&quot;
It consumes things like in phagocytosis, only itdoes this only with substances that have beendesolved enough.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Receptors receive small concentrationsof things that gather up until a vesicleis formed and can take it away.
Using passive transport does notrequire any energy! This is usefulso water and oxygen can get in.
This happens through nature wantingeverything to be in equilibrium.
When you drop a drop of water,most of the time it is going tospread as far out as possiblebecause of diffusion.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water,even if the water is a solution withsomething else.
If the concentration of a solution with waterinside a cell is higher than outside, than it ishypotonic.
If the concentration is lower insidethan outside, then it is hypertonic.
If both have the sameconcentration (which is naturallyattempted by diffusion) then it isisotonic.
There are two different types ofcells, diploid cells and haploidcells.
Diploid cells tell to be body cells. Body cells are alsocalled somatic cells. Diploid cells hold 46chromosomes (IN HUMANS) and generally go throughmitosis.
Haploid cells are normally sex cells, and have 23 chromosomes(again, HUMANS), which is the same amount of PAIRS ofchromosomes that diploid cells have, making diploid cells havetwice as many as haploid cells
Seperated into two steps, withthe same exact names.
One is labeled I and the other II
Homologous pairs are formed from chromatids that match theirparents' traits. For example, the chromosome that has the trait forhair colour in your mother matches with the chromosome in yourfather.
These pairs are ripped apart, leaving the end sexcell with hall the chromosome that came fromthe father and half from the mother.
Sex chromosomes are different, depending on the sex chromosome thefirst sex cell has, you can be XX or XY. XX is a girl, and this pair ishappy, however in XY, the X hates the stumpy little Y and they don't for apair, changing DNA depending on whether the child would be a girl or aboy.
Sometimes, DNA replication will mess up and createan extra or forget to make a certain chromosome. Weget strange effects from this.
If there are 47 chromosomes and the extra oneappears in, say, the 21st pair, then we see DownSyndrome, or Trisomy 21
Klinefelter's Syndrome happens when sexchromosomes mess up so there is an extra Xchromosome and we get an XXY
II is exactly like mitosis
Longest period a cell is in
The cell can be developing in thisstage, making new DNA molecules,or just working
Phases G1 and G2 are used forgrowing while phase Ssynthesizes DNA
A small amount of the time, afterinterphase, a cell will enter mitosis, whichhas five main phases.
The nucleolus fades and chromatingets compressed into chromosomes
Each chromosome has two chromatids
Microtubules start to breakdown
Tension applied by the spindle fibersaligns all chromosomes in one plane atthe center of the cell.
Spindle fibers shorten, the kinetochoresseparate, and the chromatids are pulled apartand begin moving to the cell poles.
Cleavage furrow appears
The daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles andthe spindle fibers that have pulled them apartdisappear.
The spindle fibers not attached to chromosomes begin breakingdown until only that portion of overlap is left. It is in this region thata contractile ring cleaves the cell into two daughter cells.Microtubules then reorganize into a new cytoskeleton for the returnto interphase.
Nobel Prizes of 2012
Medicine and Physiology
The award was given jointly toSir John B. Gordon andShinya Yamanaka
They were awarded this for the discoverythat there is a cell with the ability toreprogram mature cells back to the point towhere they were pluripotent.
This advances stem cell research immenselyand leaves behind the controversy fromEmbryonic Stem Cells
Was awarded to Serge Haroche and David J.Wineland.
They were awarded for &quot;ground-breakingexperimental methods that enable measuringand manipulation of individual quantumsystems&quot;
There were two different methods, one ofthem including trapping a photon in a box ofmirrors and sending in things to manipulate it.
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K Kobilka wereawarded for their work on G-couple-proteinreceptors, which is a receptor that works withsensing light, flavour, and odour.
Novelist Mo Yan won the prize for his writing,including one of his best novels &quot;Life andDeath Are Wearing Me Out&quot;.
His writings have been described as beinghallucinatory, historic, and other things.
European Union is the receiver of this prize.
This means 500,000,000 million peopleactually win this prize and split a $1,200,000prize.
Many think of trade and such when the Unionis brought up, but since the Union wascreated, war as been at bay for a majority,which was its essential use.
Operating a Microscope
A light microscope uses a beam oflight to project the image
An electron microscope utilizes abeam of electrons to project animage
A scanning electron microscope is used tostudy cell surfaces
A transmission electron microscope is used tostudy the inside of cells
A &quot;micrograph&quot; is a photograph takenvia microscope
&quot;Magnification&quot; is the zoom setting,and &quot;resolving power&quot; measuresclarity
How to operate the light microscope (similar microscopes that work with thismethod as a guideline include microscopes such as the dissecting microscope)
Step 1: Turn on light
Step 2: Place slide on stage
Step 3: Adjust to least magnification
Step 4: Adjust height of stage (coarse focus)
Step 5: Adjust resolving power of microscope(fine focus)
Anatomy of a Cell
Common to most eukaryotes
Nucleolus in the nucleus createsribosomes that are sent to roughendoplasmic reticulum
Created in the nucleolus andsent to the roughendoplasmic reticulum
Rough ER are dotted with ribosomes, andproteins synthesized on the ribosomesare sent through the ER
These ER synthesize lipids, phospholipids, andsteroids, making them a very essential part of acell, especially in cells meant for hormonedevelopment.
These lack ribosomes
The Golgi apparatus puts the finishing toucheson the macromolecules produced, thenorganizes then sends them out of the cell outto where they should go.
The mitochondria are the power sources ofcells. They give them power to move, divide,and basically make it function.
A mitochondrion combines sugars fromcarbohydrates and mixes it with oxygen tocreate ATP, the main energy source for a cellto power.
Pushes cell membrane and makes it secure
Turn solar energy, carbondioxide, and water into glucose
Main parts of cells that deal withphotosynthesis in the plant
The cell wall is very rigid and is the main thingin keeping a plant cell together
Found in prokaryotes as well
Central vacuole takes up at leasthalf of the cell and serves thepurpose as basically a largelysosome
The vacuole helps with intracelluardigestion
Found in animal cells too, but smaller
Can also be found in animal cells, helps thecell move around
They help attach bacteria to surfaces so theydon't fall and can spread faster
Where the DNA is held
What holds the nucleoid together
The outer wall that holds together the cell andconnects the pili to the cell
These are transfer vesicles much like vacuolesto plant cells and carry certain things from theER to the Golgi apparatus
Monomers and Polymers
Monomers bind together to form polymers
These bind together using hydrogen bonds
Bonds can be formed through &quot;dehydration
synthesis&quot;, the act of removing water in orderto enable a hydrogen bond
This act can be reversed through &quot;hydrolysis&quot;,rendering no need for a hydrogen bond, thusbreaking it apart
Monosaccharides have one monomer
Can be detected by Benedict's solution or
a glucose test strip
Glycogen stores energy for short bursts in
Common monosaccharides are glucose and
fructose (basically the same thing but still)
Disaccharides have two monomers
A common disaccharide is sucrose, lactose,
Polysaccharides can havethousands of monomers
Commonly referred to as &quot;starches&quot;
Can be detected by iodine
DNA and RNA are composed of nucleic acids
RNA is a single helix
DNA is a double helix
that creates proteins
These two form our genetic makeup
A virus contains one DNA or RNA strand with aprotein shell
Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides
Aside from composing our DNA and RNA,
nucleotides help with signaling cells and help
with enzymatic reactions
They are generally made up of a varyingnumber of phosphates, sugars, and have anitrogen base
Amino acids are the essential building blocksof everything biological
Different amino acids form different proteins,which are the main pieces of building things
There are twenty different amino acids
An amino acids carbon base allows it to bondwith many other molecules, this variable iscalled the R-group
This R-group determines whattype of amino acid it will be
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze asubstrate so it can change into a number ofproducts
An enzyme can only act when the substratereaches the activation site
The enzyme is unique to the chemical reaction.Depending on the chemical reaction you canhave numerous enzymes that will only workwith that substrate
Sort of like a lock and key, once you have the&quot;lock&quot;, the substrate at the activation site, the&quot;key&quot;, the enzyme, can unlock the products
These products do everything from produceessential things for the body to diffusing toxins
You can denature an enzyme with&quot;denaturation&quot;, which changes theshape of an enzyme, rendering ituseless. This can can be done in avariety of methods.
Enough heat (boiling is suffice)
High concentration of other substance, lowconcentration of enzyme
Four types of lipids
Any hormone created by a living thing fall underthis category.
Cholesterol has been classified as a waxysteroid of fat, however, it acts differently insome respects
Although essential to our health, cholesterol isa terrible thing to have in access as it directlyrelates to cardiovascular disease
These make up triglyceride, one fatty acidattached to each of the three molecules inglycerol
Phospholipids are extremely useful as theymake up the membranes of our cells
A pool of phospholipids will ALWAYS end up forming a lipidbilayer, because of the polar head and nonpolar tail
Fats are packets of energy that are beingstored for later use
Energy from complex carbohydrates is brokendown here and stored, also
Unlike glycogen, this is only released whenneeded, while glycogen releases it for an extraboost
Saturated and unsaturated fats
When a fat is plentiful with hydrogen, we callthat saturated, and when it lacks hydrogen, itis unsaturated.
Trans fat doesn't have anything to do with these
A saturated fat is a solid, and an unsaturatedfat is a liquid
Changing the above molecule by replacingone of the fatty acids with a phosphate groupwill create a phospholipid