World History Empires Comparison

World History Empires Comparison
Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 CE)
Location
northern India
Invasions of India
India was decentralized and
ruled by princes
700s Arabs in NW India
900s rebellious Mamluks
create new Islamic state
Ghazni Turks (Afghanistan) invade
Rajputs resisted Turks
warriors for princes
battled on elephants
battled on horses
Ghazni and Mamluks win,
establish Sultanate
Major Cities
Delhi (Muslim Turks power center)
Changes Forced
Political
centralized power in absolute
ruler, Sultan (leader)
only Muslims in government
(Persians, Afghans, Turks,
Mongols)
governed with Quran and
Sharia (Islamic set of law
codes)
Social
Hindu women forced to adopt
veil (further seclusion)
Hindus and Muslims lived in
separate communities
Cultural
spoken language: Urdu (mix of
Persian and Hindu languages)
writings in Arabic
Islam introduced to India
did not force Hindus to convert
Economic
money from trade went to government
no wealthy merchant class
Traditional Aspects
Social
caste system kept, put Muslims at top
continuation of sati
Economic
most still famers
Indian Ocean Trade
cotton
gems
elephants
salt
cinnamon
Hinduism vs. Islam
Hinduism
polytheism
no beef (cow is sacred)
women had no property
rights, couldn't divorce or
remarry
forced to adopt seclusion and
veil
caste system
divine rule
Islam
monotheism
beef
women had property rights,
could divorce or remarry
seclusion and veil
adopted caste system with
Muslims at top
adopted divine rule
Decline
1398 Tamerlane/Timur
(Mongol) invades and kills
many
Sultanate weakened
1526 Babur (Mongol who had
already converted to Islam) conquers
Sultanate
Malinke (Mali) Empire (1200-1450 CE)
Location
western Africa
along Niger River Valley
started by Sundiata Keita
after conquering of Ghana
Empire
Major Cities
Gao (capital city)
Timbuktu (important cultural
and learning center)
Jenne (trade center)
Blending of Culture
Why?
willing adoption of Islam, not conquered
kings decided what culture to blend
(depending on best interests)
Traditional Aspects
Cultural
kings still absolute and divine
Economic
major economic activity still farming
increased trade activity of gold
and salt
Social
women still active in
marketplace and economy
Influences from Islam
Cultural
Islam is state religion
Reinforcement of Traditions
patriarchal society
continued practice of polygamy
Mansa Musa
hajj in 1324
world knows wealth of Mali
procession into Mecca on pilgrimage
took so much gold that it was
devalued
took pets, wives, children, servants
brings back people to spread
Islamic culture
new mosques built in Sahel style
Arab scholars taken to Timbuktu
Decline
Civil War
lower and middle classes
wanted more wealth
Songhai Empire
led by Sunni Ali (Islamic African)
conquered Timbuktu and Jenne
9