Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
Irragation
Government
dominated by the Pharoh
some roles of authority were vizier, or the prime minister...
the King's priests also had big roles in the
government
people believed the pharoh was more than man, that he was a god
vizier was second in comand after Pharoh
Pharoh had control over the people, government, control, and the economy
The Pharoh would images as the representatives of the gods they were often depicted as warriors who singlehandedly defeated their enemies.
the Pharoh and the era in which he ruled is called a dynasty
there was 31 dynasties
Ancient Egypt was also a theocracy
controlled by clergy
Egypt was split into provinces called nomes
each nome had a governor
governor kept control over the province
there were 42 of these provinces
Taxes
taxes were sometimes paid in work and labor
citizens were drafted in the army to pay labor taxes
slave, mercenaries, and draftees were often used in the army
peasents had no say in government
money in Egypt was a deben
every person in Egypt had to pay different taxes based on the work they did
craftsmen paid with food, hunters paid with food, etc.
every single household in the country had to pay a labor tax every year
some rich people paid the poor to do this for them
among other things, the vizier was also the head tax collecter
every tax collector in Egypt had to tell him every day how many taxes they had collected
Social classes
in a pattern from highest to lowest
Pharoh
Vizier
Royal Family
Priests
officials
scribes
kept and wrote official documents
crafts people/ artisans
farmers, weavers, etc.
peasents
also beggers
Judicial System
Law
Criminal Law
Criminal law includes tomb robery, stealing, killing,
punishment was extemely harsh
the guilty had also violated Ma'at
violating Ma'at was seen as a terrible sin
The pharoh would often decide the outcome of a particular case, depending on the severity
his decision mattered above all others
General Law
laws were esssentially based upon right and wrong
when a law was broken, there was a cruel punishment
laws allowed everyone to be viewed as equals, excluding slaves
police and local officials were enforcers of the law
Ma'at
Ma'at was seen as being in charge with regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities
Ma'at as a principle
seen as a divine order
this divine order was modeled in various environmental, agricultural, and social relationships
the personification of moral law, justice order and truth
almost all ancient Egyptians worshiped Ma'at above all other gods
Egyptians believed she was the one who held everything together
Ma'at is also perceived as a goddess
often the judges were the king's viziers
they could also be led by the Overseer of the Six Great Mansions
general law was thought to be self explanatory
Civil Law
Although males had the most freedom, women also had an exceptional number of rights
civil law gave the Egyptians a feeling of balance and order
A plantiff was the leader of civil law cases
Prior to the 7th century BC most contracts and deeds were oral, many legal transactions were required to be written
Courts
who ran the courts
the king had control over courts, he had the deciding decision of cases
his opinion mattered above everyone elses
occasionaly the distinguished leader of a city would be the decider of the case
bulidings
there were no courts
Courts were mansions
they were no judges in the mansions, on people of authority
smaller cases were held in front of elders in that particular city
Some cases took place outside, with certain rituals
Expression and Technology
Technology
Tools
Metal Work
Copper
Bronze
Iron
Pyramid Building Equipment
Ramp
Lever
Roller
Mummification
People who took part in the process
Scribe
Cutter
Embalmer
Time
Calendars
Clocks
Water Clock
Sun Dial
Glass Work
Beads
Ship Building
Sails
Agriculture and Irrigation
Astronomy
Religon
Architectural
Stories
Calendar
Agriculture
Furniture
Building Techniques
Building Materials
Stone
Marble
Granite
Columns
Obelisks
Pillars
Pyramids
Mastabas
Step Pyramids
Bent Pyramids
SmoothSided Pyramids
Art
Media
materials
as exotic as possible
artisans
sculptors
also painters
worked with architects to decorate large buildings like temples
metalsmiths
worked almost exclusively in jewelry
some weaponry in times of war
other
Uses and Subjects
Could be of any subject
Sacred
showed myths and stories
History
Secular
Daily life
life of people who commissioned it
Decoration
Decorated surfaces showed wealth
temples and tombs
decorated to make the gods or their owners happy
Commission
most pieces were commission, rather than prospect
commission pieces usually reflected the day's fashions
often intended to curry favor with gods or superiors
Writing
Development
grew from crude pictures
gradually became more stylized
looked less like their original subjects
became easier to draw quickly
pictures began to represent sounds
created need for determinative at end of hieroglyph
eventually morphed into several systems
most ceremonial reserved for priests
two less hard to draw used for everyday things
Writers
Scribes
Schools
Power
Numerous professions availible
Peasants relied on scribes to
deal with the government
Nobility
Poetry and Literature
Business
Architecture
Temples
Hatshepsut's Temple
Temple at Luxor
Temple of Amon
Temple of Horus
Temple of Isis
Temple of Kom Ombo
Pyramids
Mastabas
Step Pyramid of Djoser
Maidum Pyramid
Bent Pyramid
Red Pyramid
Great Pyramid
Pyramid of Khafre
Pyramid of Menkaure
Pyramid of Pepi II
Obelisks
Hatshepsut's Obelisk
Necropolises
Zoser's Necropolis
Tombs
Tomb of Setnakht
Religion
gods and goddesses
origins
probably sprang from early Earthworship
Creation myth
myths
tended to be violent
less based on marriage and love than other cultures' myths
Dozens of gods and goddeses
place in society
worship
temples
placement
rituals
temples demanded tribute
often had festivals
sacrifices
omenreading
dances
cults
cults gained and lost favor through time
Cult of Aten (example)
adopted by the parents of Tuthankamun
Aten was the god of the Sun Disk
the worship of old gods was banned during the Amarna period
entirely changed art styles
when old gods were reinstated, as many references to Aten as possible were stricken from record
cults' power depended on people in it
mainly popular among the nobility
peasants had not the time to waste on extra worship nor the money to spend on expensive gifts most cults required.
often influenced the way other gods were worshipped
priesthood
priests were originally trained as scribes
rose through power from novice, unless they could pay their way to a higher position
appointed to various roles
Geography
Topography
Altitudes
The lowest alitude is from 436 feet below sea level
This is in the Libyan Desert
The highest is 8, 625 feet above sea level
Located in the Sinai Peninsula
Elevation
From Alexandria to Port Sa'id there is a slope 250 miles.
South of Cairo there is an upward incline of 1, 500 feet
The highest point in the southern Sinai peninsula and if reaches over 8530 feet high.
Desert depressions
The Western Desert there are a lot of lowlying sand dunes.
Some of them are Kharijah, Siwah, Farafirah, Bahariyah, and the Qattara Depression.
The Qattara depression is located in an area with large saline lakes and soil that covers 8, 900 square miles.
Location
Egypt is located in the northeast corner of Africa
The Nile's signifigance
The Nile is the most significant geographical Egypt has
The Nile has cataracts
meaning a barrier that stops the water from movement upstream.
The first cataract is the only cataract that still is in Egypt
The Nile is unique because of the way it twists in the Sahara desert.
It bent in the Sahara and most Rivers would have formed to go straight to the Sea.
Scientists have discovered that it is because of tectonic plate movement.
The Nile is fed by two rivers.
The Blue Nile and the White Nile
At one time there was about six tributaries that fed the Nile, but they dried up.
They dried up because of slow water and silt accumulation.
Nile's silt
When the snow from the mountains dried up and it flowed to the Nile
It left moist fertile soil on the banks of Egypt making the fertile soil that Egypt's civilization was built on.
Flooding
The floods began in June
They ended at the end of October
Any change in the flood pattern could be damaging or fatal for the Egyptian farmers and their crops.
Climate
Very dry there was almost no rainfall
The people in Egypt got their water from the Nile's annual flood
Size
Egypt is approximately 997,740 kilometers
Black land
It was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile.
This was the only area in Egypt that could be farmed.
There were rich layers of black silt here.
The Nile left the silt there in its annual flood.
Red land
This land was the desert that was on either side of Egypt.
These deserts protected Egypt from neighboring countries
The land also provided the people with precious metals and some rare stones.
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