What is learning Who am I as a learner

What is learning? Who am I as a learner?
Key Issues
Curricula trends in Learning
20th century there has been a shift in
theoretical understandings of how people learn
Past: emphasis on understanding and
planning
Present: emphasis on understanding how
development is defined
American DAP curriculum
Te Whariki curriculum
Vygotsky: just as a mould gives shape to a
substance, words can shape an activity into a
structure’
Sociocultural theory has likewise produced
new curricula
Sociocultural model of learning
Emotion
“Emotions function cognitively only when
they embed beliefs. For example, an emotion
such as ‘fear’ cannot be genuine if one does
not believe in danger.”
“An emotion provides a frame of reference.
For example, parental love is a framework
within which one organizes a set of feelings,
attitudes and actions.”
“Emotions can help or distract our focus.”
I believe emotions are distracting to learning.
For example, emotions such as sadness cause
people to over think and disrupt learning.
Children may be very energetic and happy and
therefore can not concentrate in the classroom
causing their learning to be affected.
“Emotions can make things stand out by
heightening our awareness and redirecting our
attention.”
Recognise emotional responses in oneself
and others can lead to self-control both socially
and educationally
Learning communities
Knowledge and values are acquired and
theorised within an individual’s particular
community
Family, neighbours, friends, and colleagues
Belonging to a community
Different types of learning communities
Collaborative learning
Collaborative curricular structures within
institutions
“ Purposely restructure the curriculum to link
together course or course work so that
students find greater coherence in what they
are learning as well as increased intellectual
interaction with faculty and fellow students.”
(Gabelnick et al. 1990:5)
Surface and deep knowledge
Surface knowledge and learning is
unreflective studying of a fragmented
curriculum, unthinking acceptance of texts or
other authorities and memorizing without
understanding.
Deep knowledge requires time to study in
depth a limited number of topics and subjects.
It demands an enquiring and analytical
approach to information and interpretations,
and it requires subject expertise on the part of
teachers.
Deep thinking and learning also have social
and emotional dimensions
Learning Theories
Cognitive learning theories
Piaget
“Cognitive learning theories view learning as
a process of understanding and
internalizing….aspects of the world around
us.”
Distinct stages of cognitive development
Develop mental tools to help process
information
Influenced curriculum development
Vygotsky
Requires social interaction
Zone of estimated ability
Scaffolding
Social learning theories
Learning leads development
Vygotsky
‘Zone of proximal development’ (ZPD)
Help from teachers/ peers/ caregivers
Children’s learning becomes increasingly
complex as the child grows
Active participants in learning
Constructivist learning theories
Learners actively construct frameworks of
understanding
Prior knowledge and new information
Prior ideas must be engaged and re-worked
as new information
Learning is therefore an active process
Cognitive schema
Develop new ideas and concepts based upon
their existing knowledge.
Brune
Scaffolding
Support teachers give to students to
construct and extend skills
Human interaction
Shifting responsibility
Experimental learning theories
How an experiences motivate individuals and
their learning
Meaningful experiences
Experiences change an individual’s
knowledge
Social and constructivist theories of learning
‘Self-initiated’ learning
Rogers
New learning influences existing learning
Learning can only be facilitated: we cannot
teach another person directly
Multiple Intelligences
Gardner
Each person’s level of intelligence actually
comprises a number of distinct faculties
eight intelligences
Linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial,
bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and
intrapersonal
Communities of Practice
Lave and Wenger
“The relational character of knowledge and
learning…the negotiated character of
meaning, and … the concerned (engaged,
dilemma-driven) nature of learning activity for
the people involved…there is no activity that is
not situated.”
Learning is most effective when it occurs in
communities
Learning is said to occur most effectively
within ‘communities of practice’
Learner-centered classrooms
You: the learner…
What does your Learning Profile tell you
about learning?
My Learning Profile demonstrated that I was
a kinesthetic learner.
I am better preforming physical tasks rather
than sitting in a lecture and taking notes.
I learn better visually and by being creative due
to the right hemisphere of my brain scoring
higher in the Whole Brain Quiz.
I enjoy art and music.
Teaching
How can a teacher add value to a learning
experience?
A teacher can add value to a learning
experience by being engaging and
knowledgeable towards students.
What are the qualities of effective teachers?
Qualities of an effective teacher:
Confidence
Understanding and knowledge of what they
are teaching and the world around them
Engaging
Make children excited about learning a
Encourage children to want to learn
Allow children to feel comfortable and safe in
the classroom
How do we measure learning?
Assessment Tasks, such as spelling tests,
quizzes and games that monitor children's 
learning and their ability.
How do we encourage learning?
How do we enable learning?
Being engaging
Energetic and enthusiastic.
Knowledge and understanding.
Knowledge of history and the world.
How can we effectively assess learning?
Learning can be assessed effectively by
preforming assessment practices, such as
spelling tests, quizzes etc. This enhances an
individuals learning because it monitors their
knowledge and understanding of what they
have learnt, therefore enhancing learning.
Factors of Learning
What factors affect learning?
There are many factors that affect learning,
emotions, social settings, cognitive
development, experiences and the influences
of others and the environment.
Why is emotion an important factor affecting
learning?
Emotion is an important factor affecting
learning because emotion influences how a
person may think, feel or act resulting in
learning being affected. Emotion can distract
focus but in some cases in can cause an
individual to become focused.
Why is our social setting an influence on
learning?
The social setting in a classroom is important
to learning because learning is more effective
in communities with peers working together, to
learn from each other and work together to
solve problems. Social setting influence our
learning because it allows us to gain
knowledge from others.
How do people and relationships affect
learning?
People and relationships affect learning
because they influence how individuals
perceive certain values and beliefs, the
change in values in beliefs will create a
change in others understandings.
What is lifelong learning?
Lifelong learning is developing skills and
knowledge that is necessary for general
capabilities and specific performance in work
situations.
Why learn discipline knowledge?
Discipline knowledge is important because it
allows thinking to be expanded and to gain an
insight on knowledge retained from past
learning experiences.
Why learn in groups?
It is beneficial to learn in groups because it
involves collaborative learning, allowing
communities/groups to acquire knowledge
from one another and broaden understandings
and absorb information from others involved
in their groups.
What are the benefits of rich tasks?
The benefits of rich tasks are that rich tasks
draw on knowledge, skills and practices across
disciplines.
What is the difference between learning about
ICTs and learning with ICTs?
The different between learning about ICTs and
learning with ICTs is learning about ICTs is the
learner understandings how ICTs impact
society, and how values and power are used
and communicated in technology. Whereas,
learning with ICTs involves learning how to
communicate, project management, publish,
managing digital artefacts and problem solving
through the use of ICTs.
Learning
What is learning?
Knowledge gained through experiences and
study to increase understanding
How do we learn?
By absorbing information and knowledge.
Everyone learns differently.
When do we learn best?
We learn best when in a social setting because
it is more effective to work in “communities”, it
allows us to work together to create
understanding.
Is learning the same for children and adults?
Children and adults do not learn in the same
way. Children absorb new knowledge and what
they have learnt, compared to adults due to
having previous experiences, knowledge and
set views on specific topics to draw on.
What are learning outcomes?
The development of knowledge and
understandings.
What is the process of learning?
Individual learns from study, experiences,
teacher and absorbs information.
How is learning value based and driven by our
beliefs?
Learning is influenced by our values and beliefs
because they affect how we perceive things.
Prior experiences affect learning because it
causes an individual to develop certain views
due to the situations they've previously been
involved in.
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