Psychology Theories

Psychology Theories
Behavioral Theories
What Is Behaviorism? - 1950s
Learning/Acquiring Behaviour through CONDITIONING
Learning ==> interaction with environment
Major Thinkers
Ivan Pavlov
B. F. Skinner
Edward Thorndike
John B. Watson
Clark Hull
two major types of conditioning
1 Classical conditioning
Stimulus / Response
Ivan Pavlov
1. UC-S --> UC-R
2. C-S -->C-R
Principles of Classical Conditioning
1. Acquisition
initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened
2. Extinction
when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear
3. Sponteneous Recovery
reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response
4. Stimulus Generalization
tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned
5. Discrimination
ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
2 Operant conditioning
Rewards / Punishments
B.F. Skinner
Components of Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement
any event that strengthens or increases the behavior
two kinds of reinforcers
Positive reinforcers
favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior
response is strengthened by the addition of something
reward
Negative reinforcers
removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior
response is strengthened by the removal of something
unpleasant
Punishment
presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavio
two kinds of punishment
Positive punishment
application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response
Negative punishment
removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed
schedules of reinforcement
a rule stating which instances of a behavior will be reinforced
1. Continuous Reinforcement
desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs
2. Partial Reinforcement
response is reinforced only part of the time
1. Fixed-ratio schedules
response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses
2. Variable-ratio schedules
esponse is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses
3. Fixed-interval schedules
first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed
4. Variable-interval schedules
response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed
Cognitive Theories
internal mental states
motivation
problem solving
decision-making
thinking
attention
What Is Cognitive Psychology? 1950s -1970s
tudies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn
neuroscience
linguistics
philosophy
core focus of cognitive psychology
how people acquire, process and store information
Important People
Gustav Fechner
Wilhelm Wundt
Edward B. Titchener
Hermann Ebbinghaus
William James
Wolfgang Kohler
Edward Tolman
Jean Piaget
Noam Chomsky
David Rumelhart
James McClelland
Major Topics
Perception
Language
Attention
Memory
Problem-Solving
Decision-Making and Judgment
Intelligence
Jean Will Fritz Piaget ( 9 Aug 1896 - 16 Sep1980)
Schema Theory
1. Schemas
What is Schema?
mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing
categories of knowledge
help us to interpret and understand the world
process of obtaining that knowledge
experiences
new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas
2. Assimilation
new information into our previously existing schema's
subjective
we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs
3. Accommodation
adaptation
changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information
New schemas may also be developed
4. Equilibration
balance between assimilation and accommodation
balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation)
Stages of Cognitive Development
1. The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
sensory perceptions + motor activities
looking, sucking, grasping, and listening, to learn more about the environment
Object Permanence
child's understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard
Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage
1. Reflexes (0-1 month)
child understands the environment by sucking and looking
2. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)
coordinating sensation and new schemas
3. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)
intentionally repeat an action
4. Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months)
showing clear intentional actions
5. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
period of trial-and-error
6. Early Representational Thought (18-24 months)
symbols to represent events or objects
2. The Preoperational Stage (2-6)
1. Language development
not yet understand concrete logic
cannot mentally manipulate information
unable to take the point of view of other people
2. Egocentrism
three-dimensional display of a mountain scene
unable to take on another person's perspective
3. Conservation
different shaped cup
number, length, mass, weight, volume, and quantity
3. The Concrete Operational Stage (7 -11)
better understanding of mental operations
thinking logically
concrete events
difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts
1. Logic
fairly good at the use of inductive logic
from a specific experience to a general principle
difficulty using deductive logic
2. Reversibility
understanding of reversibility, or awareness
able to reverse the order of relationships between mental categories
4. The Formal Operational Stage (12 --->)
ability to think about abstract concepts
Skills
logical thought
deductive reasoning
systematic planning
1. Logic
thinking about possible outcomes and consequences of actions
2. Problem-Solving
trial-and-error to solve problems
ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way
able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving a problem
Theories of Intelligence
general ability
aptitudes, skills and talents
Charles Spearman (1863-1945) - General Intelligence
existence of a general intelligence 1904
known as g factor
responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests
Primary Mental Abilities
Louis L. Thurstone - (1887-1955)
focused on seven different "primary mental abilities."
1. Verbal comprehension
2. Reasoning
3. Perceptual speed
4. Numerical ability
5. Word fluency
6. Associative memory
7. Spatial visualization
Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner
eight distinct intelligences
1. Visual-spatial Intelligence
good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures
2. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
Words, Language and Writing
3. Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence
Physical Movement, Motor Control
4. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations
5. Interpersonal Intelligence
Understanding and Relating to Other People
6. Musical Intelligence
Rhythm and Music
7. Intra personal Intelligence
Introspection and Self-Reflection
8. Naturalistic Intelligence
Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature
1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg
"mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life."
'successful intelligence,' -- three different factors
1. Analytical intelligence
problem-solving abilities
2. Creative intelligence
ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills
3. Practical intelligence
ability to adapt to a changing environment
What Is a Genius IQ Score?
Alfred Binet
Gestalt psychology
founded by German thinkers Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka
focused on how people interpret the world
formed partially as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt
phi phenomenon.
illusion of motion
What Is Attention?
how we actively process specific information
William James
Memory
the processes that are used to acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information
three major processes
1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval
The Stage Model of Memory
proposed in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin
three separate stages of memory
1. sensory memory
sensory information from the environment is stored for a very brief period of time
a half-second for visual information
3 or 4 seconds for auditory information
2. short-term memory
active memory kept for 20 to 30 seconds
3. long-term memory
continuing storage of information
Forgetting
Elizabeth Loftus
four major reasons
1. retrieval failure
decay theory
fade and disappear
2. interference
two basic types of interference
1. Proactive interference
2. Retroactive interference
3. failure to store
Encoding failures
4. motivated forgetting
conscious form of forgetting, and repression
Left Brain vs Right Brain
The Right Brain
Recognizing faces
Expressing emotions
Music
Reading emotions
Color
Images
Intuition
Creativity
The Left Brain
Language
Logic
Critical thinking
Numbers
Reasoning
What Are the Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization?
law of similarity
Law of Pragnanz
Law of Proximity
Law of Continuity
Developmental Theories
human growth, development, and learning
What is Psychosexual Development?
Sigmund Freud
personality
pleasure-seeking energies of the id
libido
psychosexual energy
psychosexual stages
1. The Oral Stage (0-1 year)
mouth
sucking
pleasure from oral stimulation
Oral fixation -->drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting
2. The Anal Stage (1 -3 yrs)
Bowel and Bladder Control
toilet training
sense of accomplishment and independence
stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive
3. The Phallic Stage (3 -6 yrs)
Genitals
begin to discover the differences between males and females
The Oedipus complex
Electra complex
4. Latent Period (6 - puberty)
Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
Ego
Super-ego
5. The Genital Stage (puberty - death
Maturing Sexual Interests
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
six stages
Level 1. Preconventional Morality
Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
rules as fixed and absolute
Obeying the rules
to avoid punishment
Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange
individual points of view and judge actions
Level 2. Conventional Morality
Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships
"good boy-good girl" orientation
focused on living up to social expectations and roles
Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order
people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments
doing one’s duty and respecting authority
Level 3. Postconventional Morality
Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights
account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people
Stage 6 - Universal Principles
universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
1. People can learn through observation.
Observational Learning
2. Mental states are important to learning.
Intrinsic Reinforcement
pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment
3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior
The Modeling Process
1. Attention
paying attention
2. Retention
store information
3. Reproduction
practice
4. Motivation
learning to be successful,
Attachment Theory
The Components of Attachment
Safe Haven
Secure Base
Proximity Maintenance
Separation Distress
Characteristics of Attachment
Characteristics of Secure Attachment
Characteristics of Ambivalent Attachment
Characteristics of Avoidant Attachment
Problems with Attachment
The Four Styles of Parenting
1. Authoritarian Parenting
2. Authoritative Parenting
3. Permissive Parenting
4. Uninvolved Parenting
Humanist Theories 1950s
focused on each individual's potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization
1962, Abraham Maslow published Toward a Psychology of Being
Major Thinkers
Abraham Maslow
1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation"1 and his subsequent book, Motivation and Personalit
Carl Rogers
Rollo May
Erich Fromm
The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiological Needs
water, air, food and sleep
2. Security Needs
safety for survival
steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods and shelter
3. Social Needs
Relationships
friendships, romantic attachments and families
ocial, community or religious groups
4. Esteem Needs
self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment
5. Self-actualizing Needs
self-aware
self-fulfillment
1. Acceptance and Realism
2. Problem-centering
3. Spontaneity
4. Autonomy and Solitude
5. Continued Freshness of Appreciation
6. Peak Experiences
Types of Needs
1. Deficiency needs
2. Growth needs
What Is Self-Efficacy?
Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory
the role of observational learning, social experience, and reciprocal determinism in the development of personality
seminal 1977 paper, "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change
a person’s attitudes, abilities, and cognitive skills comprise
self-system
belief in one’s capabilities
The Role of Self-Efficacy
four major Sources of Self-Efficacy
1. Mastery Experiences
2. Social Modeling
3. Social Persuasion
4. Psychological Responses
Personality Theories
What Is Personality?
characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors
characteristics of personality
1. Consistency
recognizable order and regularity to behaviors
2.Psychological and physiological
psychological construct
influenced by biological processes and needs
3. It impacts behaviors and actions
causes us to act in certain ways
4. Multiple expressions
displayed in more than just behavior
Type theories
Trait theories
Psychodynamic theories
Behavioral theories
Humanist theories
Trait Theory of Personality
Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory
traits into three levels
1. Cardinal Traits
2. Central Traits
3. Secondary Traits
Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality
1. Introversion/Extraversion
directing attention on inner experiences
quiet and reserved
focusing attention outward on other people and the environment
sociable and outgoing
2. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability
upset or emotional
3. Psychoticism
mental illness
The Five-Factor (Big Five) Theory of Personality
1. Extraversion
excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness
2. Agreeableness
trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors
3. Conscientiousness
high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors
4. Neuroticism
emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness
5. Openness
imagination and insight
Henry Murray and Psychogenic Needs (1893-1988)
two types
1. Primary Needs
biological demands
oxygen, food, and water
2. Secondary Needs
generally psychological
nurturing, independence, and achievement
List of Psychogenic Needs
1. Ambition Needs
Achievement
Success, accomplishment, and overcoming obstacles.
Exhibition
Shocking or thrilling other people.
Recognition
Displaying achievements and gaining social status.
2. Materialistic Needs
Acquisition
Obtaining things.
Construction
Creating things
Order
Making things neat and organized.
Retention
Keeping things.
3. Power Needs
Abasement
Confessing and apologizing.
Autonomy
Independence and resistance.
Aggression
Attacking or ridiculing others.
Blame Avoidance
Following the rules and avoiding blame.
Deference
Obeying and cooperating with others.
Dominance
Controlling others.
4. Affection Needs
Affiliation
Spending time with other people.
Nurturance
Taking care of another person.
Play
Having fun with others.
Rejection
Rejecting other people.
Succorance
Being helped or protected by other
5. Information Needs
Cognizance
Seeking knowledge and asking questions
Exposition
Education others
Karen Horney's List of Neurotic Needs
10 neurotic needs
1. The Neurotic Need for Affection and Approval
2. The Neurotic Need for a Partner Who Will Take Over One’s Life
3. The Neurotic Need to Restrict One’s Life Within Narrow Borders
4. The Neurotic Need for Power
5. The Neurotic Need to Exploit Others
6. The Neurotic Need for Prestige
7. The Neurotic Need for Personal Admiration
8. The Neurotic Need for Personal Achievement
9. The Neurotic Need for Self-Sufficiency and Independence
10. The Neurotic Need for Perfection and Unassailability
Defense Mechanisms
Sigmund Freud's topographical model of personality
id
wants, needs and impulses
ego
reality
superego
idealistic and moral manner
anxiety
three types of anxiety
1. Neurotic anxiety
unconscious worry
2. Reality anxiety
fear of real-world events
3. Moral anxiety
fear of violating our own moral principles
10 Types of Defense Mechanisms by Anna Freud
1. Denial
2. Repression
3. Suppression
4. Displacement
5. Sublimation
6. Projection
7. Intellectualization
8. Rationalization
9.Regression
10. Reaction Formation
Other Defense Mechanisms
Acting out
Affiliation
Aim inhibition
Altruism
Avoidance
Compensation
Humor
Passive-aggression
Jung's Archetypes
four major archetypes
1. The Self
unification of the unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual
2. The Shadow
sex and life instincts
3. The Anima or Animus
anima is a feminine image in the male psyche
animus is a male image in the female psyche
4. The Persona
mask
may appear in dreams and take a number of different forms
Other Archetypes
father
Authority figure; stern; powerful.
mother
Nurturing; comforting
child
Longing for innocence; rebirth; salvation.
wise old man
Guidance; knowledge; wisdom.
hero
Champion; defender; rescuer.
maiden
Innocence; desire; purity.
trickster
Deceiver; liar; trouble-maker.
Social Psychology Theories
The Bystander Effect
The Asch Conformity Experiments
The Milgram Obedience Experiment
Leadership Theories - 8 Major Leadership Theories
1. "Great Man" Theories:
2. Trait Theories:
3. Contingency Theories:
4. Situational Theories:
5. Behavioral Theories:
6. Participative Theories:
7. Management Theories:
8. Relationship Theories:
Theories of Love
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