Immune System Concept Map

Immune-System-Concept-Map
Leukocytes
- diapedesis
- when a white blood cell travels through capillaries
then arrives at point of infection, they send a
signal then ooze through the capillary to heal
- phagocytes
- phagocytosis
- eat the viruses in the cell (as
opposed to the natural killer
cells)
- natural killer cells
- circulate in the blood and kill
viruses, bacteria and cancerous
cells
- MORE INFO IN INNATE IMMUNITY SECTION
- 4 kinds
- neutrophils
- move around bloodstream;
quickly get to action
- when they eat infected cells,
they die and become pus
- macrophages
- BIG and don't travel a lot
- they usually stay put around your vital organs
- they can detect rogue
(cancerous) cell and alert other
immune cells
- Antigen-presentation
- may occur in other cells, macrophages
is just one of the types that it happens
on
- this is when a cell destroys a pathogen so it
leaves part of the pathogens genetic code on
itself.
- Helper T cells can read this and figure out
what kind of pathogen it was and whatnot
- he figures this out because the macrophage
produces Interleukin 1, which explains to the T
Cell what happened
- The T cell then produces Interleukin 2
- he then produces himself into lots of helper T
cells, most of which become Effector T Cells (see
effector T cells in T cell section)
- the rest become Memory T cells which just keep
track of the genetic code of the stuff to provide
future prevention against it
- dendritic cells
- "mailman"
- they stay on the outside of your body
- eat pathogen and record the
information then bring the info back to
your thymus
- allows things to move from the innate
immune system to the acquired immune
system
- natural killer cells
- circulate in blood and kill viruses,
bacteria and blood cells
- kill other body cells
- the only phagocytes to destroy
and attack other human cells
- humans have MHC 1 when they
are healthy
- natural killer cells kill body cells
that are not producing MHC1
- lymphocytes
- B Cells
- covered in antibodies that can
attach to specific antigens
- memory B cell
- when pathogen comes, B cell reprodeces and
makes effector and memory cells (see hank
green vid for illustration)
- do not become effectorcells
- they store the memory of the
antibody created to provide future
immunity
- effector/plasma cell
- use antibodies as a blueprint to make a crap
ton of anitbodies for that specific pathogen
2/sec
- they attach to pathogens and keep them from
moving until the phagocyte can come and kill
it
- Mature in bone marrow
- T Cells
- Cytotoxic T Cells
- NOT phagocyes
- release enzymes that kll the cell
- defend against the infected cell
- helps with suicide
- if a body cell is infected and
doesn't want to spread
- it attaches itself to a normal
cell presenting antigens
- it then puts an enzyme in it that
puts holes in the cell
- KILLER CELLS
- Memory T cells
- have previously encountered
and responded to antigen
- cells that keep track of how
THEY killed a pathogen (chicken
pox)
- helper T cells
- attach to B cells to tell genetic
material of pathogen
- release T cell cytokineses
- they kinda call the shots for the
whole immune system
- mature in thymus
- coordinate the immune system and attack
Adaptive/Acquired Immunity
- SUPER ELITE DOUBLE
SECRET STRIKE FORCE
DELTA
- Active Immunity
- when your body has to recognize
antigens and produce antibodies
- vaccines
- injected weakened or dead viruses so
your body can become immune to the
virus
- vertebrates only
- develops more slowly to allow to
learn about the pathogen before
attacking
- humoral response
- activation of B cells
- cell-mediated immune response
- activation of cytotoxic T Cells
- Antigens
- signs that cause your immune system to
create an antibody against detected
pathogen
- "antibody generator"
- antibodies...
- not cells
- produced by B cells
- they cannot kill
- however they can swarm around
invaders making it very difficult for them
to move
- they can also attach themselves to the bad
guys and send out chemical messages to
phagocytes
- lymphocytes
- T Cells
- SEE DESCRIPTION IN LEUKOCYTES
- B Cells
- SEE DESCRIPTION IN LEUKOCYTES
Innate Immunity
- Passive Immunity
- injected with antibodies or given
from your mother
- your body gets antibodies
without actually making them
- when you are a baby
- placenta
- breast milk
- every animal has this
- also called non specific
- faster?
- protects against ALL pathogens
- barrier defences
- 1st line of defense
- mucous membranes
- secretions
- skin
- tears
- sweat
- internal defences
- 2nd line of defense to barrier defenses
- phagocytes
- SEE DESCRIPTION IN LEUKOCYTES
- inflammation/ inflammatory response
- response to damage by injury or infection
- mast cells
- release of histomine
- brings in white blood cells to help
kill (helps with splinters or
viruses)
- when your body acciddentaly thinks something
is bad that really isn't, an allergic reaction
occurs
- when this occurs, we take
antihistamines to stop the
allergies
- blood clots
- leukocytes
- SEE LEUKOCYTE DESCRIPTIONS
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