Jugular Vein Pulse

Jugular Vein Pulse
Raised JVP
Normal Waveform
Bradycardia
Fluid overload
Heart Failure
Avsense pulsation
Superior vena cava syndrome
a wave
antrium kick, TV open
Cannon 'a' wave
(atria contracting against closed tricuspid valve)
Atrial flutter
Premature atrial rhythm (or tachycardia)
AV block, third degree heart block
Ventricular ectopics
Ventricular tachycardia
Junctional rhythm
Large 'a' wave
(increased atrial contraction pressure)
tricuspid stenosis
Right heart failure
Pulmonary hypertension
Absent 'a' wave (no unifocal atrial depolarisation)
atrial fibrillation
c wave
TV closing with bulging of TV to RA
Tricuspid regurgitation
x descent
RA relaxation
Precipitous x descent
pericardial constriction
cardiac tamponade
v wave
RA tense, TV closed
Large 'v' wave (c-v wave)
Tricuspid regurgitation
Raised JVP
Large v wave
Rapid y descent
atrial septal defect
y descent
RA emptying with open of TV
Slow 'y' descent
Tricuspid stenosis
rapid y descent
Tricuspid regurgiation
Sharp y descent, deep y trough, rapid ascent to baseline
constrictrive pericarditis
Parodoxical JVP
(Kussmaul's sign: JVP rises with inspiration, drops with expiration)
Pericardial effusion
Constrictive pericarditis
Pericardial tamponade
Abdominojugular test
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