Chemistry Mind Map

Chemistry:
Alkanes
Group
Boiling Point (C)
methane -162
ethane -89
propane -42
butane 0
pentane 36
Fractional Distillation
first members
fuels
Properties
remarkably unreactive
saturated
hydrocarbons
all single covalent bonds
C-C
NO C=C!
Homologous Series
contains same functional group
one carbon
CH2
general formula
CnH(2n+2)
combustion
+O2
CO2 + H2)
low oxygen supply
CO
incomplete combustion
chemical test
none
Uses
fuels
Shape
corners of tetrahedron
Isomerism
Isomerism is the phenomenon whereby certain compounds,
with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms
owing to their different organisations of atoms.
The concept of isomerism illustrates the
fundamental importance of molecular
structure and shape in organic chemistry.
Examples
http://www.avogadro.co.uk/organic/isomer.htm
NB same formula!
boiling point (C)
pentane 36
2-methylbutane 27
2,2-dimethylpropane 11
Methane
Chlorination
HALOGENATION
replacement of one or more H with halogen atom
excess of methane
methane + chlorine ---> chloromethane + hydrogen chloride
CH4 (g) + Cl2 (g) ---> CH3Cl (g) + HCl (g)
excess chlorine
mixture of products
chlorine replaces upto 4 H atoms
13