Minoan Trade Routes Map

Minoan-Trade-Routes-Map
Art
Subject matter
Household things
Pets, posessions, etc.
Not many pictures of unliving
objects alone
Nature
Scenes
Example: cat chasing a bird
Items
Example: water lilies
People
All social classes
Not formally posed
Showed doing everyday tasks
Walking
Socializing
Carrying jugs
Playing sports
Medium
Houses
Most famous Minoan art
Huge, detailed wall paintings
murals: painted on a dry wall
Frescoes: painted on wet plaster
Walls were coated with pure lime
mosaics
Vases
Much like other Greek vases in
construction
Showed scenes like those of
the frescoes
Pottery was the only main
form of sculpture
Jewelry
Males and Females
Females wore slightly more jewelry
Design
Not generally portraying
something in particular
Meant to show off wealth
Only men wore large engraved
rings with pictures of hunts
Many materials
Crystal
Quartz
metals
Silver
Bronze
Gold
Copper
gems
Amethyst
Carnelian
Agate
Steatite
Could be worn anywhere
Most were very large
Aside from modern styles, chest
plaques, chains, etc. were also
popular
Significance
highlights Minoan character
Disproves common assumptions
of ancient civilizations
Shows skill of Minoan craftsmen
Architecture
Public buildings
Palace at Knossos
inspired myth of Labyrinth
decoration
free standing
painted vases
statues
amphorae and urns
walls
frescoes
paintings
mosaics
carvings
architectural components
elaborately carved friezes
walls painted to look like marble
layout
up to four stories
Central court of 20,000 square feet
stone stairways led to other rooms
variety of rooms laid out in no
particular order
reception rooms
anterooms
administrative offices
throne room
bedrooms
servants' quarters
Guardhouses
chapel
"hall of the double axe"
workshops
wine presses
storerooms
dungeon
Complex near palace
theater
probably a marketplace
cemetery
Royal villa
building
little to no marble
built with wood, gypsum, and
limestone
Blocks cut sharply and stacked
without mortar
Heaviest materials used on
lowest floors
Used columns to hold up roofs
square stone pillars on bottom floors
round tapering wood pillars on
top floors
Other palaces built similarly to
Knossos, just not as big
Malia
Zakros
Phaistos
temples
very few temples
worship was instead
conducted at sacred places
raised altars at them
raised altars in temples and
public places
kept small, decorated shrines at home
houses
number of stories signified
wealth of occupant
building materials were the
same as for public buildings
mud brick for the poor
limestone and gypsum for
those who were wealthier
wealthy also could have
multiple floors
decoration was not limited to
upper class
frescoes were popular in all classes
urns, amphorae, and statuettes
were also popular
Aside from palaces, villas served
as vacation homes
Economics
Trade
Major trade center, due to location
Center of Aegean
Trade routes intersected at Crete
Asia Minor
Mainland Greece
Africa
Europe (such as it was)
Imports
precious stones
Precious metals
gold
silver
copper
Tin
Used tin and copper to make bronze
Were very influential in bronze trade
grain from around Black Sea
Mainly traded with Greece,
Syria, Egypt, Spain, and
Mesopotamia
Exports
agricultural products
Cypress
Olive oil and olives
wine
currants
wool
herbs
purple dye
manmade goods
bronze
raw
implements
cloth
ceramics
Domestic
Supplyside economy
wealth came from palace and
trickled down to the poor
Farming
products
grapes
chickpeas
vetch
barley
wheat
figs
some spices
olives
Most farmers were subsistence
farmers
Grain had to be imported from
Asia minor
livestock
pigs
cattle
sheep
goats
Government
Palatial
King and aristocracy
controlled wealth of
country
Country grew through
leadership that stayed away
from threats
No standing army to feed
No threat of territorial invasion
No military bureaucracy
Monarchy
One king ruled from central
palace
employed an efficient
bureaucracy
Controlled mercantile navy
to a certain extent
taxed a percentage of the grain harvest
to feed and pay the people of the
palace
Also had control over rulers
of other palaces (provincial
lords)
Strict social heirarchy
Nobles
landowners, traders, etc
Peasants
farmers and laborers
Slaves
worked without pay, tied to
the land and whoever ruled
it
Writing
Two scripts
Linear A
Has not been deciphered
Complex symbols seem to
represent words
Linear B
Has been deciphered, but was
not used much by the Minoans
Some researchers believe that the
Minoan writings in linear B were actually
Mycenaean translations
Was later adapted by the
Mycenaeans and formed the basis of
Classical Greek
Religion
Polytheistic GoddessWorship
Dieties
Snake Goddess
goddess of the house
Protector of families
Also took form of small bird
Lady of the Beasts
Portrayed as mistress of all animals
Later showed as "mountain mother"
Lead Goddess
Much like Zeus, a "mother of
the earth"
Various demons
Demons were portrayed much
like they are in other religions
Always shown as humans with
the hands and feet of lions
Nymphs/Guardian spirits
Sacred places suggest
guardian spiritworship
Trees
Sacred stones
Springs
Priesthood
Mainly female priests
males mainly performed minor jobs
May have attained higher significance as
the rest of Greece influenced the
Minoans
Worship
hymns
sung in chorus and solo
accompanied by conches,
flutes, drums, and lyres
rituals
planting and/or watering trees
priestesses shaking trees and
gathering fruits
offering fruits and flowers to statues
Role in Daily Life
Not much known
Worshiped Snake Goddess in
small shrines
Kept and fed small snakes
Had tiny shrines adorned with
carvings and frescoes
Geography
Crete
Mediterranean island
ideal position for trade
200 km from East to West
1258 km North to South
Still inhabited
largest town: Heraklion
Landscape
Mountains
Coastal plains
Plateaus
Lybian Sea to South
Aegean Sea to North
Climate
Short, mild winters
Dry, warm summers
Technology
Agriculture
plows
wooden
leather handles and fastenings
pulled by pairs of oxen or donkeys
Some irrigation used,
along with wells
plumbing
mainly reserved for rich
Water was collected and
stored uphill from towns
Water flowed downhill in
terracotta pipes
Pipes were tapered at one
end to fit together
Sewage systems were also
terracotta pipes
buried under streets and such
had traps to catch sediment
bound to other pipes with cement
roads
Roads were paved with
cobblestones
Some of the most intricate
roads in ancient civilization
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