Central European Monarchs Clash

Central European Monarchs Clash
Prussia Challenges Austria
The Rise of Prussia
The Hohenzollerns built up their states from
a number of small holdings, begining with
the German states of Bradenbrug and
Prussia.
Prussia's landowning nobility, the
Junkers, resisted the king's growing
power.
Frederick the Great
Frederick William worried that his son,
Frederick, was not military enough to
rule.
In 1730 him and his friend tried to run away
but was caught. To punish him, the king
ordered him to witness his friend's
beheading.
Despite the memories, Frederick became
known as Frederick the Great, followed his
father's military policies when he came to
power.
War of the Austrian Succession
1740, Theresa succeeded her father, just
five months after Frederick II became king
of Prussia.
Theresa and Frederick went to war
over Silesia, which bordered
Prussia.
Theresa lost Silesia in the
Treaty of AixlaChapelle in
1748.
The Seven Years' War
In 1756, Frederick attacked
Saxony, an Austrian ally.
Soon every great European
power was involved in the
war.
Took place in Europe, India,
and North America. Lasted til
1763.
Both France and Britain had colonies in
North America and the West Indies. Both
were competing economically in India.
States Form in Central
Europe
Economic Contrasts with the West
The economy of central Europe
developed differently from that of
western Europe.
Serfs slowly won freedom and began
moving into towns with the middle
class
Several Weak Empires
Nobles in central Europe held down the serfs
but also blocked the developed of strong
knights.
After the Thirty Years' War the Holy
Roman Empire had no real power in
Germany.
Austria Grows Stronger
Hapsburgs of Austria took several
steps to become absolute
monarchs.
First step, conquered Bohemia.
Second step, they centralized the
government and created a standing
army.
Third, they took Hungary
from the Ottoman Empire.
Maria Theresa Inherits the
Austrian Throne
Charles VI persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign an
agreement that declared that they would recognize
Charles's eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburg
territories.
The Thirty Years' War
Bohemian Protestants Revolt
Ferdinand II was head of the Hapsburg family
and he was future Holy Roman emperor and
he ruled the Czech kingdom of Bohemia.
The protestants in Bohemia did not trust
Ferdinand because he was a foreigner and a
catholic.
When Ferdinand closed several protestant
churches he made the protestants revolt
against him and sparked the thirty years
war.
Hapsburg Triumphs
The thirty years war lasted from 16181648. The
first 12 years the Hapsburg army from Austria to
Spain crushed the troops hired by the Protestants
princes.
Ferdinand allowed his army to
plunder, or rob, German
villages.
Hapsburg Defeats
Gustavus Adolphus and his army of
23,000 shifted the tide of war in
1630.
They drove Hapsburg armies out of northern
Germany. Gustavus was killed in battle in
1632.
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the war in 1648.
Weakened the Hapsburg
states of Spain and Austria
Strengthened France by
awarding it German
territory
Made German princes
independent of the Holy Roman
emperor
Ended religious wars in Europe
Introduce a new method of
peace negotiation
Begining of Modern States
Recognized Europe as a group of equal
independent states. Most important result
of the Thirty Years' War
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