Central European Monarchs Clash
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Central European Monarchs Clash
Prussia Challenges Austria
The Rise of Prussia
The Hohenzollerns built up their states froma number of small holdings, begining withthe German states of Bradenbrug andPrussia.
Prussia's landowning nobility, theJunkers, resisted the king's growingpower.
Frederick the Great
Frederick William worried that his son,Frederick, was not military enough torule.
In 1730 him and his friend tried to run awaybut was caught. To punish him, the kingordered him to witness his friend'sbeheading.
Despite the memories, Frederick becameknown as Frederick the Great, followed hisfather's military policies when he came topower.
War of the Austrian Succession
1740, Theresa succeeded her father, justfive months after Frederick II became kingof Prussia.
Theresa and Frederick went to warover Silesia, which borderedPrussia.
Theresa lost Silesia in theTreaty of AixlaChapelle in1748.
The Seven Years' War
In 1756, Frederick attackedSaxony, an Austrian ally.
Soon every great Europeanpower was involved in thewar.
Took place in Europe, India,and North America. Lasted til1763.
Both France and Britain had colonies inNorth America and the West Indies. Bothwere competing economically in India.
States Form in CentralEurope
Economic Contrasts with the West
The economy of central Europedeveloped differently from that ofwestern Europe.
Serfs slowly won freedom and beganmoving into towns with the middleclass
Several Weak Empires
Nobles in central Europe held down the serfsbut also blocked the developed of strongknights.
After the Thirty Years' War the HolyRoman Empire had no real power inGermany.
Austria Grows Stronger
Hapsburgs of Austria took severalsteps to become absolutemonarchs.
First step, conquered Bohemia.
Second step, they centralized thegovernment and created a standingarmy.
Third, they took Hungaryfrom the Ottoman Empire.
Maria Theresa Inherits theAustrian Throne
Charles VI persuaded other leaders of Europe to sign anagreement that declared that they would recognizeCharles's eldest daughter as the heir to all his Hapsburgterritories.
The Thirty Years' War
Bohemian Protestants Revolt
Ferdinand II was head of the Hapsburg familyand he was future Holy Roman emperor andhe ruled the Czech kingdom of Bohemia.
The protestants in Bohemia did not trustFerdinand because he was a foreigner and acatholic.
When Ferdinand closed several protestantchurches he made the protestants revoltagainst him and sparked the thirty yearswar.
The thirty years war lasted from 16181648. Thefirst 12 years the Hapsburg army from Austria toSpain crushed the troops hired by the Protestantsprinces.
Ferdinand allowed his army toplunder, or rob, Germanvillages.
Gustavus Adolphus and his army of23,000 shifted the tide of war in1630.
They drove Hapsburg armies out of northernGermany. Gustavus was killed in battle in1632.
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the war in 1648.
Weakened the Hapsburgstates of Spain and Austria
Strengthened France byawarding it Germanterritory
Made German princesindependent of the Holy Romanemperor
Ended religious wars in Europe
Introduce a new method ofpeace negotiation
Begining of Modern States
Recognized Europe as a group of equalindependent states. Most important resultof the Thirty Years' War