Avoiding Bias and Fake News

Avoiding Bias & Fake News
Articles & More from Education,
Libraries Etc.
Voices
Brooke Borel
Brooke Borel on factchecking and fake news
The Chicago Guide to FactChecking
FactChecking Won’t Save Us From Fake News
Daniel Dennett
Daniel Dennett: ‘I begrudge every hour I have
to spend worrying about politics’
“The real danger that’s facing us is we’ve lost respect for truth and facts. People have
discovered that it’s much easier to destroy reputations for credibility than it is to
maintain them. It doesn’t matter how good your facts are, somebody else can spread
the rumour that you’re fake news. We’re entering a period of epistemological murk and
uncertainty that we’ve not experienced since the middle ages.“
Themes
Economics
AVAAZ: Kick Fake News Out of Our Elections
“There’s a law that can clear fake news from our feeds forever it’s already on the
table in Germany and we can bring it to the Netherlands. The idea is so simple: make
the platforms that spread and profit from fake news and hate speech pay if they don’t
remove it quick.“
Advertising
This is how Facebook’s fakenews writers make
money
“Carroll estimated that a fakenews share from within the Trump campaign could earn the
lucky hoaxer as much as $10,000 in extra revenue, provided they have taken full advantage of
the ad services available to them. That’s a “huge economic incentive to create stories that they
want to distribute.”“
The Best Way to Quash Fake News? Choke Off
Its Ad Money
Without these ads, there wouldn’t be money in
fake news
Who & Where
How Teens In The Balkans Are Duping Trump Supporters With Fake News: BuzzFeed News identified more than 100 proTrump websites being
run from a single town in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Fake News: How a Partying Macedonian Teen
Earns Thousands Publishing Lies
INSIDE THE MACEDONIAN FAKENEWS COMPLEX
101Geek: How To Make Big Money Online
With Fake News – Full Guide
How not to be shut down
Disclosure
Admit it’s fake news on main page
Disclosure page
Include“fake“ in URL
http://fakenewsmatters.org/
http://www.fakenews.net/
http://fakenews.news/
http://fakenews.one/
40%60% method (ratio of fake to real news)
Understand you’ve got to have morals
Education
About
BBC: Schools should teach children how to
spot fake news
Fortune: More and More Teachers Are Holding
Classes on How to Avoid Fake News
Japan Times: Facebook, Google testing
apps to spot fake news but experts say key is
being educated
Nieman Labs: This “Wikipedia for
factchecking” by students makes more
room for context and origins of claims
online
USA Today: Can ’only education’ solve
the fake news problem?
Vox: I taught my 5thgraders how to spot
fake news. Now they won’t stop
factchecking me.
Examples from the Media
BBC Future: How to Avoid Falling for Lies and
Fake News
Don’t be seduced by simplicity
Be smart to doctored images
Accept your ignorance
Look beyond your bubble
Be curious
Consider the opposite
FactCheck.org: How to Spot Fake News
1. Consider the source
2. Read beyond the headline
3. Check the author
4. What’s the support?
5. Check the date
6. Is this some kind of joke?
7. Check your biases
8. Consult the experts
Futurist: Learn to spot ‘alternative facts’ in
science
GovTech: What to Do About Fake News, Fake
Apps and Fake Government Services
The Guardian: What is fake news? How to spot
it and what you can do to stop it
Huffington Post: How To Recognize A Fake
News Story: 9 helpful tips to stop yourself from
sharing false information.
1. Read past the headline
2. Check what news outlet published it
3. Check the publish date and time
4. Who is the author?
5. Look at what links and sources are used
6. Look out for questionable quotes and
photos
7. Beware confirmation bias
8. Search if other news outlets are reporting it
9. Think before you share
USA Today: How to Spot Fake News
Examples from Education
CRAP/CRAAP Detection
The Preuss School: Website Evaluation
Howard Rheingold: CRAP Detection 101
A Guide to Crap Detection Resources
Today in the Open Learning MOOC: fake news
and crap detection
Twitter: We teach our students the CRAAP
test
Holly Clark: Find, Validate, Use
Open Learning MOOC
U. Cambridge: ’Psychological vaccine’ could
help immunise public against ‘fake news’ on
climate change – study
UofM: Fake News and the Web of Deceit
UofM: University of Michigan TeachOut:
Fake News, Facts, and Alternative Facts
(Youtube)
Yale: How to Inoculate the Public Against
Misinformation About Climate Change
PDF of published version
Libraries
Classes
UM Library battles fake news with new class
Library Battles Fake News with New Class
Books & Reading Lists
KidLit Resists
In the News
ALAnews: New report chronicles library
community’s front line battles against fake
news, censorship, bigotry
ALA: Programming Librarian: Fake News: A
Library Resource RoundUp
American Libraries: Fighting Fake News, How
libraries can lead the way on media literacy
American Association of School Librarians:
School Libraries Fight Fake News
ACRLog: Information Literacy and Fake News
Boingboing: Libraries must resist trumpism
Christian Science Monitor: The fight against
fake news is putting librarians on the front line
– and they say they’re ready
“While some have questioned the movement and its ability to politicize neutral,
governmentfunded library environments, librarians say advocating for free, open
spaces for all, as well as providing legal resources and accurate facts, shouldn’t
constitute a political statement. For them, taking a subtle stance against the
administration simply involves showing up and doing their jobs.“
Daily Herald: Librarians can combat ’fake
news,’ panel says
HuffPost: After Trump Was Elected,
Librarians Had To Rethink Their System For
FactChecking
Jason Griffey: Stand, Fight, Resist
LA Times: How to weather the Trump
administration: Head to the library
The Library Combats Fake News with
Educational Guide
Library Journal: Libraries and Fake Facts
MTV: In Trump’s America, Activist Librarians who won’t be shushed,
Librarians are getting ready to fight fake news, hate crimes, and whatever
lies ahead
Seattle Times: Librarians take up arms against
fake news
The Verge: In the war on fake news, school
librarians have a huge role to play
Washington Post: Museums and libraries fight
‘alternative facts’ with a #DayofFacts
Events, Lectures, Panels
‘A PostTruth Nation’ panel hosted Feb. 22 by
Vanderbilt Libraries
Attend ’Fake News: How To Spot It’ At Silver
Spring Library
Davenport Library to Host“The Rise of Fake
News“
Libraries vs Fake News
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6Gvs_KZ9uM
Longmont Library moves ’fake news’ lecture;
opens up 40 more spots
LibGuides
Albuquerque Public Library: Fake News
Bowdoin: Fake vs. Fact
CUNY: act Checking, Verification & Fake
News
Duquesne University: Fake News and False
Information
Harvard: Fake News, Misinformation, and
Propaganda
Hillsborough Community College: Fake News,
Misleading News, Biased News: Evaluating
Sources
Indiana University: Fake News
Loyola U: Fake News and Evaluating Sources
Mount Allison U: Fake News Guide
PACE University: Real News vs. Fake News
PSU: Fake News
San Rafael Public Library: HELP! MY NEWS IS
FAKE! INFORMATION LITERACY GUIDE
INFORMATION LITERACY FOR KIDS AND TEENS
SFU: Fake News
SUNY Albany: Fake News
UCBerkeley:Real News/Fake News
U Michigan: What is“Fake News“?
U Toronto: How do I spot fake news?
UVA: Fake News
University of Washington: Evaluating
Information: Fake News
University of Mississippi: Fake News or the Real
Deal?
WCU: Hunter Library: Is it Fake?
WSA: Parody News
Projects
#DayOfFacts
On Twitter
On Instagram
via ImgPublic
About
Huffington Post: Here’s What We Learned From Friday’s
#DayofFacts, Libraries and museums reminded the world of
the better alternative to “alternative.”
Chicagoist: Video: The Field Museum Expertly Throws
Shade On ’Alternative Facts’ For #DayOfFacts
HyperAllergic: Museums, Libraries, and Cultural
Organizations Fight Misinformation with #DayofFacts
KITV4 Island News: #DayofFacts campaign
highlights libraries, museums as free resource
Quartz: Real Talk: Libraries and museums team
up for bold political statement: Facts are real
Washington Post: Museums and libraries fight
‘alternative facts’ with a #DayofFacts
Library Freedom Project
LibrariesResist
@LibrariesResist
Facebook: LibrariesResist
#LibrariesResist
#LibrariesR4Every1
Popular Hashtags for #LibrariesResist
#Librarians
#LibraryLife
#LibrariesR4Every1
#LibrariesResist
#ReadingBuildsEmpathy
#Refugees
#Resist
#TLchat
#VSLA
#VTED
#LibrariesResist Resources List
Que(e)ry Librarians
About
5 Minute Librarian: Libraries Resist
Reddit: Libraries Resist Resource List
Stephen’s Lighthouse
Workshops
Arlington Heights librarians take on fake news
Longmont Library creates program to help
decipher real and fake news
Write
Fake news or legit? 5 clues you can apply
Psychology
Association for Psychological Science: Why Do We Believe
Fake News? Accepting Inaccurate Information Is Less Work
Than Being Critical, According To Research
Forbes: ’Psychological Vaccine’ May Protect
Against Fake News, Alternative Facts
Nature: How Facebook, fake news and
friends are warping your memory
New Republic: There’s a Psychological Reason for the Appeal of
Fake News, We tend to trust our friends more than experts. Now
we’re paying for it.
Newsweek: WHY WE FALL FOR FAKE NEWS: THE
PSYCHOLOGY OF ONLINE NEWS CONSUMPTION
Phys.org: Psychological ’vaccine’ could help immunize
public against ’fake news’ on climate change
Psychology Today: What We Know About Fake
News, Researchers are learning why people
believe fake news, and how to stop it.
Psychology Today: Fake News: Why We Fall
For It
Psychology Today: A Brief History of Fake News, How
spoofers and trollers learned to monetize gullibility
Psychology Today: On Conservatives, Liberals, and Fake
News, Political differences in negativelybiased credulity.
USA Today: The Fake web: why we’re so apt to
believe fake news, apps and reviews
Technology
Apple: Tim Cook
Apple’s Tim Cook: Fake news is ’killing
people’s minds’
“Cook told the Daily Telegraph newspaper that
falsehoods are being spread by people who
want“to get the most clicks, not tell the most
truth. It’s killing people’s minds in a way.““
Tim Cook: Fake news is ’killing people’s minds’
Facebook
Facebook to Label ‘Fake News’ with Help of
Partisan ‘Fact Checkers’
Facebook, Google testing apps to spot fake
news but experts say key is being educated
Facebook Algorithm Tweak to Favor ’Authentic’
Content
Facebook’s failure: did fake news and
polarized politics get Trump elected?
This is now what happens when you try to
post fake news on Facebook
Reddit
The Life, Death And Rebirth Of ‘Fake News’ On
Reddit
How Reddit Talked About The 2016 Presidential
Campaign, From ‘Basket Of Deplorables’ To ‘Yuge’
Getting automated factchecking from science
fiction to reality
Tech can help us spot fake news, but there’s only one real way to stop it
Machine Learning Finds “Fake News” with
88% Accuracy
Examples
Taxonomy of Trump Tweets
Article
Tweet
Taxonomy
Preemptive framing
Diversion
Deflection
Trial balloon
Fake News Sites
70 News
ABC News (dot CO)
The Boston Tribune
Burrard Street Journal
Christian Times
Civic Tribune
The DC Gazette
Empire Herald
EN: Empire News
Huzlers
If You Only News
Info Wars
National Report
NewsLo / Politicops
Now 8 News
The Onion
React 365
Real News Right Now
Rile News
World News Report
Your News Wire
Collections
Melissa Zimdars
False, Misleading, Clickbaity, and
Satirical “News” Sources (~150 more)
[PDF]
False, Misleading, Clickbaity, and Satirical
“News“ Sources (Google Doc) [~170+]
By type of bias
ABOUT: List of 141 Fake (and Real) News
Websites Goes Viral After Trump Wins
Presidency
ABOUT: Fed up with fake news, Facebook
users are solving the problem with a simple
list
ABOUT: Trendolyzer Statistics
Media ReDesign
Design Solutions for Fake News (syllabus?)
CBS News: Don’t get fooled by these fake
news sites
Business Insider: These are the most and
least trusted news outlets in America
Daily Dot: Here are all the ’fake news’ sites to
watch out for on Facebook
Imgur: A decent breakdown of all things
real and fake news.
Pantheos: Please Stop Sharing Links to These
Sites
SciBabe: An Incomplete List Of Complete
Bullshit Websites
Claim Sources (Google Doc w/ list & analysis)
Tools
Apps
Responding
Countable
Stance
DIY Fake News
Break Your Own News
Fake News Maker
Fake newspaper creator (iOS)
Fake newspaper generator
More
WARNING: Fake Apps, too
How to spot fake iOS and Android apps
Plugins
Entertainment
Real Donald
Make America Kittens Again
Tools
B.S. Detector
Fact Pop Up (Duke Reporters Lab)
FactPopUp Chrome Extension
Github Code
Improved version of FactPopUp, our realtime
factchecking tool, now available
Reporters’ Lab to experiment with popup
factchecking during debate
Bias assessment
in research
Cochrane Risk Of Bias Tool
ROBIS
ROBINSI
NIH Quality Assessment Tool
in people
Project Implicit
in communities
BART (Bias Assessment & Response Team)
in language
“Left Language, Right Language“
Critical thinking & debate
Tools & Educational Resources
CRAP Detection
Critical Skills Thinking Cheatsheet Infographic
CHAIN of TRUST (see page 2 of PDF)
Healthcare
PubMed Commons
QuackWatch
Quackwatch review Is Stephen Barrett a
Quack? Is he fair, balanced, or biased?
Skeptical Raptor
More
Environmental scanning
AllSides
Polarization
Blue feed, Red feed
CabinetVotes
GovTrack
For Writing
Journalists’ Toolbox
Field Guide to Fake News
Duke: Reporters Lab
First Draft News
Newsela
Fake news checkers & related tools
Political
Nonpartisan
Balletopedia
FactCheck
OpenSecrets
Politifact
PRWatch: Map of TV Stations That Aired Fake News
PropOrNot (Propaganda, International)
The YYYcampaignYYY
An Example of Manual Propaganda
Identification: HangTheBankers.com
HangThe Bankers (Archived)
Sunlight Foundation
Washington Post Fact Checker
Partisan
DrudgeReport
Media Matters
Newsbusters
General
Fake News Checker
DigiPo (Digital Polarization Initiative)
About
FlackCheck
Google: See fact checks in search results
HoaxSlayer
Hoaxy
This Tool Maps the Spread of Fake News Online
Media Bias Fact Check
Is this a biased source?
ProCon
Real or Satire
Websites that are ...
Real
Satire
Snopes
Snopes’ Field Guide to Fake News Sites and
Hoax Purveyors
Truth or Fiction
About
International FactChecking Network
About the International FactChecking Network
Fact Checkers Code of Principles
FactChecking: How to Improve Your Skills in
Accountability Journalism
The Daily Mail Snopes Story And Fact Checking
The Fact Checkers
The Fake Newsletter (Craig Silverman)
Poynter
Washington Post: The Fact Checker’s guide for
detecting fake news
Determine whether the article is from a
legitimate website
Check the ‘contact us’ page
Examine the byline of the reporter and see
whether it makes sense
Read the article closely
Scrutinize the sources
Look at the ads
Use search engines to doublecheck
Strategies
Read/listen broadly.
How
left/right/center
geographic diversity
events? local hometown rag
read outside USA for news about USA
Look at trends across geographic regions and
external major powers
independently published
blogs & podcasts & citizen journalist
Why
“You should know by now :) I have ALWAYS been reading
broadly. How can you know the opposite POV if you don’t
see how they communicate, what makes them tick and how
they manipulate facts.“
What
10 Investigative Reporting Outlets to Follow
Associated Actions
“Thank you for reading broadly.“
Thank others who read broadly, who share what
they’ve found, and who promote the vision of
reading broadly and without bias.
Critical thinking
Local (UMich) resources
Learning Resource Center
Sweetland
ULibrary
What is logic? What is bias?
*A world of possible futures
How to detect and bust spew freaks, politicians, liars, etc.
First learn their tricks and slimy ways:
25 rules of disinformation
False flag
Eight Traits of the Disinformationalist
Logical fallacies
Formal
Informal
Propositional
Quantificational
Formal syllogistic
Faulty generalizations
Red herring
Conditional or questionable
Cognitive bias
Top Ten Ways to Deal with Behavioral Biases
Focus on the Data
Actively Seek Out Contrary Data and
Conclusions
BuildIn Accountability Mechanisms
Focus on Process
Test and ReTest
Avoid the Noise
Take a Tip from Attorneys
Keep Track of Your Mistakes as Carefully as
Your Successes
Take Your Time
Try to Stay Humble (no matter how successful
you are)
Sophism
Rules for Making Oneself a Disagreeable
Companion
The Gentleperson’s Guide To Forum Spies
The 15 Rules of Web Disruption (How to Spot –
and Defeat – Disruption on the Internet)
Commonly held false data
Bias & logical fallacies
Interactive: Infographic: Your logical fallacy is ...
io9: The 12 cognitive biases that prevent you
from being rational
NoBeliefs: List of common Fallacies
RationalWiki: List of cognitive biases
Wikipedia: List of cognitive biases
Logical reasoning & argumentation
WikiJob: What is logical reasoning?
Wikipedia: Logical reasoning
ProofWiki:Definition:Logical Argument
Purdue Online Writing Lab: Logic in
Argumentative Writing
Dartmouth: Institute for Writing and Rhetoric:
Logic & Argument
About
What is logic? Is logical thinking a way to discover or to
debate? The answers from philosophy and mathematics
define human knowledge
Core concepts
Criteria assessment
what is the difference between a news story, an
edtorial, humor, and an advertisement?
What is“fake news“?
Examples
Docufiction
AirMedia: Docufiction: Where Art and Life
Merge and Diverge
Open Access Articles Top Results for
Docufiction
Videomaker: A CREATIVE TREATMENT OF
ACTUALITY
Wikipedia: Docufiction
Wikipedia: List of Docufiction Films
Gossip
Hoax news
Parody news
Propaganda
Tabloids
Definitions
“Fake news, or hoax news, refers to false information or
propaganda published under the guise of being authentic
news.“ Webopedia: fake news
“Fake news is madeup stuff, masterfully manipulated
to look like credible journalistic reports that are easily
spread online to large audiences willing to believe the
fictions and spread the word.“ Politifact
“Fake news websites (also referred to as hoax news) deliberately
publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real
news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their
effect. Unlike news satire, fake news websites seek to mislead, rather
than entertain, readers for financial, political, or other gain.“ Wikipedia
“1) False or otherwise extremely exaggerated news stories used to
generate money from ad revenue by using clickbait titles or used to sell
tabloids in the grocery checkout line. 2) A term for a news article that
doesn’t validate one’s political opinion.“ Urban Dictionary
“.@CraigSilverman’s three criteria for what actually counts as fake
news. We need to be careful with our terminology. #infoneeds“
Joy Mayor (1) 100% false (2) Was knowingly created as being false
(3) Has an economic motive.
Check before you share
Check the DATE
Check the source
Check a factchecker
Fact checkers
ABC Fact Check (AU)
Months after losing funding, ABC Fact Check is
back
FactCheck
Viral Spiral: Don’t get spun by Internet rumors.
That Chain Email Your Friend Sent to You Is
(Likely) Bogus. Seriously.
How to Spot Fake News
NPR
Politifact
Snopes
Trump Tweet Factchecker
Urban Legends
Washington Post
About fact checkers
Fact checkers have bias too
American Press Institute: Fact checking
Ballotpedia: The methodologies of
factchecking
Duke Reporters Lab: Global Fact Checking
Database & Map
Duke Reporters Lab: How We Identify Fact
Checkers
The Hill: But who will check Facebooks
’factcheckers?’
MIT Technology Review: The Limits of
FactChecking Facebook
Pacific Standard: How Wikipedia Is Cultivating
an Army of Fact Checkers to Battle Fake News
Politico: The Facts About Fact Checkers
Poynter: FactChecking
Utne Reader: The Facts About FactChecking
Washington Post: But who will factcheck the
factcheckers?
Wikipedia: Fact Checking
Zero Hedge: Visualizing the Fake News
Problem (Infographic)
Fact checking examples
Internet Archive: This week’s TV news
highlights with fact checks
Check for bias
Go to the original sources
Immersion
talk to people outside your bubble
learn a foreign language
engage with people from other places
read international news
Examples
Check White House actual documents
Read the home town paper for events
Look at data and nonprofit sources
Use caution
Who watches the watchers?
Tips & Tools for Assessing Bias
How to Inoculate the Public Against
Misinformation About Climate Change
Inoculating the Public against Misinformation
about Climate Change
Lagniappe
History
WWII
In the 1930s, Adolf Hitler arrested and
executed ‘fake news’ journalists who
rightfully claimed that Jews were being
exterminated
Fighting the Nazis With Fake News: A new
documentary rediscovers a World War II
campaign that was stranger than nonfiction
The Long and Brutal History of Fake News
6 fake news stories in real history
Trump’s “fake news” playbook is ripped
straight from the pages of a 180yearold
media hoax
Bots
Political Bots
Politics
Equality
Unless The Government Acts Soon, Fake
News Will Produce Deep Information
Inequality
Misinformation
Trump cranks up fog machine to confuse
American public
Michigan Daily: Fake news travels fast
Polarization
The Identity Politics Of The Trump Administration
Partisan media and fake newsonomics
Is the Internet Causing Political
Polarization? Evidence from Demographics
NBC News: Fake News? Hear a ’Great
Politician’s’ Perspective
Politifact: 2016 Lie of the Year: Fake news
Sciences
Fake news invades science and science
journalism as well as politics
NY Times: 20th Century Fox Used Fake News
to Publicize ‘A Cure for Wellness’
What makes antivaccine websites
persuasive? A content analysis of
techniques used by antivaccine websites
to engender antivaccine sentiment
Case Studies
Media Matters: How Media Outlets Helped
Trump Push A Fake News Story About Bikers
And His Inauguration
No, attack squirrels didn’t gnaw off Detroit
man’s testicle
Detroit News: Study: Fake election news
flooded Mich. Twitter feeds
France24: How to spread fake news about Paris
riots: A guide
Three thousand fake tanks: How a network of
conspiracy sites spread a fake story about US
reinforcements in Europe
Political Bots: Academic Papers
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