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Java has a separate compiler and library ofmodules everywhere the source code is to beturned into machine language
Java is 'compiled' to an intermediate stage (Java bytecodes),which are a tokenised/compressed version of the originalcode. This is passed to an interpreter, Java Virtual Manager(JVM), which is written for every platform Java is to run on.
Define Syntax and Semantics
The rules that govern how statements incomputer programming language must beconstructed.
Incorrectly spelling a keyword
Using the wrong brackets
Leaving off the matching bracket
Leaving off the end statement symbol (;)
The meaning conveyed by acollection of staments.
It is possible to write a syntactically correctstatement that would be semanticallywrong.
A computer can detect syntax errors. For example wordprocessor checking spelling mistakes or a software compilerchecking for syntax error. However, computers will neverknow the semantic meaning of what was written orprogrammed.
What are they?
Translational program thatconverts source code into objectcode
Converting HLL into anequivalent LLL so that it can beexecuted
Compiled object code canbe executed by thecomputer
Process of compiling
Remove all spaces and comments and lookfor reserved words such as do/while/if/etc.Compiler produces a new version of the code.
Program is checked against the syntax rules(brackets match, do matches with while).Syntax errors are reported.
The machine code that will be run by thecomputer is created. Any standard libraryfunctions are linked into the final compiledprogram.
Compiler needs to be loaded into memory. Compiled code usuallyexecutes faster than an interpreted version of the same program.Can be moved across computers, however, source code cannot andmay need some changes to be made.
Compiler vs Interpreter:
Interpreter analyzes and executes each line of source code in
succession without looking at the entire program while a
compiler creates a completely new program that is executed.
It does not stop at the first error and just reports the errors.
Software Development Tools
Make the development ofcertain software easier.
Enables web pages to be created withoutneeding to know or remember the syntax of arange of HTML instructions.
Data Base Management Systems enable database to becreated without needing to write specific code. Enable datadictionaries and files to be created, manages data, createsreports
Computer Aided Software Engineering enablestages of system development cycle to beimplemented and managed in an integratedmanner.
Tools include: summarizing initialrequirements, developing flow diagrams,scheduling tasks, preparing documentation,etc.
Developed by recording a series of keystrokes which canbe referenced later. Referencing may be provided byusing a set of keystrokes, known as 'shortcut keys'.Saves time and effort by automating repetitiveprocesses.
High-level vs Low-level
One instruction = manymachine code instructions
One instruction = one machinecode instruction
Machine specific, machineoriented
Less easy to write and debug
High-level language translators
2 types of computer languages
Hardware only runs on machine code, which isrepresented by the 1's and 0's of binary code. Electricalcircuits and magnetic storage devices only recognize thiscode.
Also known as Assembly Language. Eachline of an assembler program correspondsto one of the machine code. However, oneHighlevel language statement usuallytranslates into many machine codestatements.
They are portable (be able torun on different machines)
Englishlike/Easier to understand
Different languages aredeveloped for different tasks
FORTRAN(FORmula TRANslation Language)intended for mathematical and scientificprogramming
COBOL(Common BusinessOrientedLanguage) for developing business anddataprocessing applications.
ALGOL(ALGOrithmic Language) introducedstructured programming and led to thedevelopment of C and Pascal.
BASIC(Beginners Allpurpose SymbolicInstruction Code) gave many an easyintroduction to programming
Object Orientated Languages (SMALLTALK,C++ and Java) have taken structuredprogramming one step further.
Translated highlevel instructions that can be directly executed one by one.
Compiled programs run fasterthan interpreted ones
Advantages is that the line of codebeing interpreted is executed straightaway
Programmers normally have access to IDEswhich integrate editor, to create source code,and debugger, to remove bugs.
Summary: Converts source code into object code that canbe executed. Compiled code can be executed without thecompiler. However, object code can't be modified butsource code that runs in an interpreter can be viewed.