Geography of Canada

Geography of Canada
International Interconnections
Canada: international team
player
Canada is important
internationally
seen as compassionate and caring
commonwealth: former British colonies
25% of world's population
south Africa, Canada, India
family connections
United Nations
formed after WWII
there are 192 countries
conflict resolution, peacekeeping, diplomacy
other organizations: UNESCO, UNICEF,
NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Association), World
Bank, NGO's
Imports/ Exports
Trade is all about exchanging goods and
services
Importing is all about bringing in goods from
foreign places; exporting is giving goods to
foreign places
Importing gives use things we cannot grow or
manufacture in Canada; exporting gives us $$$
Canada exports raw materials, auto mobiles,
airplanes, nuclear products
80% of our exports are to USA
Trade surplus
fair trade vs. Protectionism
NAFTA( North American Free Trade Act) We
have free trade with Mexico and USA
Tariff, Quota, Subsidy, all forms of protectionism
GDP ( gross Domestic Product) measures a
country's worth.
Canada's GDP was 1.57
trillion
some companies make more than most
countries' GDP's they have more power
JP Morgan Chase Bank ( #1 company in the
world)
Globalization
the world is a global village and everyone is
connected
6th degree of separation ( we are related by 6
people)
cultural awareness vs. cultural exploitation
Quality of Life
world heritage sites
one in Quebec city
GDP shows standard of
living
developed, developing, industrialized
UNESCO ( United Nations Educational,
Scientific and cultural Organization)
What's a
Canadian?
does Canada have culture or are we American
wannabe's?
Do stereotypes define us?
International policies
First Aid: Helping developing countries who need
support (myth in sorts)
Donated 0.285 of its GDP
Peace Keeping: Lester B. Pearson, A force to
avoid conflict
Syria conflict
Human Rights: Fighting for the rights of people
Lloyd Axelworthy
People on the land
Industries
four types of industries
Primary
agriculture
secondary
manufacturing
tertiary
most people work in this industry; service
researching
researching
refers to particular types of labour that are done
entrepreneurs are people who run their own
businesses
education has nothing to do with the levels of
industry
work
this is important for Canadian
life
unemployment happens for many reasons;
laziness is very uncommon
under employed
single mothers, visible minorities and low
education are mos likely to be umemployed
employment is affected by the cost of operating a
business
often relocate to lower costs
working poor; those who work, but cannot afford
basic needs
volunteering; people who work for free
single industry towns
resources
many companies are lured by Canadaès
resources
resources are the base of materials
a resource
is anything
found in
nature
that is of
value
non renewable resources
operate in geologic time
renewable resources
operate in human time
flow resources
operate in the moment
fouund
capitalist vs.
environmentalist
money vs. the earth
environmentalist: we are the world
capitalist: money$$$$
fishing
Pacific, Atlantic, freshwater
The Atlantic fishery collapsed because of
overfishing.
find cod,herring there.
destructive fishing practices
lots of fish because of the shallow waters
pacific fisheries
fear that they
will collapse
like the
Atlantic
fish found: salmon!!
salmon are caught on their migration routes
Freshwater
fisheries
are around
the great
lakes area
Lake Erie the most profitable lake; shallow
waters
sport fishing= $$$
Effluent
three groups fighting for control of fisheries:
Commercial, sport, Native
agriculture
if you ate today, thank a farmer
1 in 5 jobs are related to agriculture
farming is based off of chance
growing season is above 5*C
extensive and intensive farming
intensive farming; small land, high value
perishable's foods with more workers and few
equipment
degradation of farmland: erosion, overuse
extensive farming is large land,
non perishable foods with lots
of equipment
in the 1880s 80% of Canadians were farmers,
now less than 3%
Niagara fruitbelt
forestry
10% of worlds forests in
Canada
almost 1/2 of Canada is forests
two basic types of wood; softwood and
hardwood
softwood lumber makes pulp and paper
hardwood lumber makes planks and lumber
big tree become lumber and small trees make
pulp and paper
the industry creates a lot of money ($22 billion)
high value of wood caused clear cutting
practices
over consumption threatens
the forestry industry at every
level.
RECYCLING!!
mining
everything in our lives has to
do with mining
mining produces the high
multiplier effect; where the
more you process it, the
higher value there is.
a mineral is a naturally
occurring pure chemical
compound( including
elements)
four types
industrial minerals; diamonds
metallic minerals; gold
structural minerals; gravol
fuel minerals; coal
types of mining
open pit mining; for minerals
near the edge then go lower
in the Earth
strip mining; for minerals
close to the surface of the
Earth
underground mining; for
minerals further in the earth;
most dangerous
energy
Canada is one of the top
energy users in the world
non renewable and renewable
resources.
Canada has fossil fuels,
hydrocarbons, hydro
electricity and nuclear
hydroelectric energy needs a slope and water
Ontario is the largest user of Nuclear energy in
Canada.
it is cheap, clean energy.
coal used to be popular, but it causes too
much pollution
most of our coal comes from Alberta
OIL!!!
it is found underwater too, but very difficult to
extract
also in the North, too expensive to bother...for
now
Tar sands are mucky areas of sand mixed
with oil.
greenhouse gases trap heat to the Earth.
global warming; climate change
carbon oxygen cycle
Natural gas usually found above oil, but it very
temperamental; use with caution
good for home heating, used in power plants
to generate electricity
carbon footprint
Average Canadian footprint is 8 hectares
figure out how much space we need to live
our lives
transportation
transportation of goods that are not available
in different areas.
highway 401 is the largest highway in
North America
Cars are the most popular form of
transportation for Canadians
four major waterway; Hudson bay, great
lakes, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean.
Canada's Cultural Diversity
population
population is the number of people who
live in a given area at a given time.
population is dynamic
population density
this is the meausre of the number of
people who live in a standardized area.
Canada's population density is 3.1 people
per km2.
four factors
birth rate, death rate, immigration,
emigration
birth rate the amount of babies born in a
population. Usually written in a rate per 1000
people.
death rate is the amount of people who die in
a population. It is usually written as a rate per
1000 people.
immigration is
when people
move from
one country to
another.
Emigration is when people move out of a
country to another.
calculating natural increase: birth rate death
rate
cloropleth mapping.
using colour shades to represent an amount
of something using 36 different classes.
can only use one colour (moncromatic)
settlement
Ecumene: where the population lives. This
is the Windsor Quebec city corridor
different types of settlements.
hamlet, village, town, city, megacity, CMA,
megatopolis...
census: stats
Canada.
demography is
the study of
population
trends.
rates can be shown as a percentage
agesex pyramids
shows population patterns.
Divides the population by age and by
gender
males on the left, females on the right
dependency load
15 and under and 65 and over
they take up appropriately 1/3 of Canada's
population.
BABY BOOMERS!!
from 19451960, more babies than
expected were born.
this cold be because the war was over,
soldiers came home to a safe
environment.
flow maps
uses arrows and colours to show
importance.
the bigger the symbol,the more important it
is.
the fatter the arrow, the more important it
is.
immigration
people immigrate fro many reasons
push + pull factors
Some factors are: war, education,
prosecution, refuge etc...
push factors are what make you want to
leave a country
pull factors are what attract you to another
country
how to get into
Canada:
if you have a health issue or a criminal
record, there's a very slim to none chance of
getting in.
different classes to apply into:
skilled workers class
people with education and work experience
that can help them find a job and help the
economy
investors
people who are going to put money to
Canada.
Provincial nominees
provinces can nominate someone who has
applied to work in a specific field in their
province.
family
You can bring siblings, parents,
grandparents, children, commonlaw
partners, spouses, nephews, nieces and
grandchildren.
refugee
you can only apply under this class if you
have proof that you are not safe in your
country.
currently you need a minimum of 67 of the
100 points to get inon the test.
education is the highest category on the test.
multiculturalism... a
myth?
a policy that encourages cultural diversity
and respect
there are ethnic enclaves in Canada (Greek
Town)
tossed salad vs. melting pot
assimilation
cultural imprints
social imprints
the ways that people behave
language, religion, family traditions, clothing,
food, sports
physical imprints
The ways people affect their surroundings
Architectures,
speciality
shops,
restaurants.
urban settlements
breaking up the land
"Long lot" system
section system
line+ concessions system
over 90% of Canadians live in urban areas.
there are transportation cities, manufacturing
cities, resource cities, service cities
many ways to use the land
residential
housing
Institutional + public buildings
schools, libraries
transportation
roads, highways, parking lots
Open space
parks
Industrial
stores, factories
commercial landuse; meant for buying and
selling goods only
Low order, middle order, high order types of
stores
big cities
Alienation
feeling alone among thousands of
people
poverty
cost of living is higher
crime
more people+ more crime
physical blight
functional blight
areas that cannot be used for their original
purpose
frictional
blight
this is when there is conflicting landuse
deterioration of landscape.
Urban fringe
mixed land use
Indigenous people
also known as first nations
often tried to be destroyed for the land by
Europeans
colonize, kill, residential schools
us vs. them
Canada's physical diversity
Earth
4.6 billion years old
possibly formed by a meteor
oblete spheroid
third planet from the sun
looks like a large blue and green ball from
space
Different parts of the Earth
Mantle
The liquidy area just under the crust and
above the core.
lava; magma
core
the centre of the earth.
crust
the hard outside layer of the Earth; what
we see.
systems
a group of different parts that connect to make
a whole
Human systems
Communication systems, transportation
systems, information systems etc...
Natural systems
Ecosystems
Macro systems
Hydrosphere
What makes a natural system?
displays synergy
supports all living things
are driven by energy from the sun
are connected to one another in complex
relationships
decomposes and recycles all waste
are affected natural and human influence
are not well understood by humans
operate on very long timelines
use all four spheres
synergy
when the sum has more value than the parts
Physical regions
There are seven landform regions.
3 highland
Appalachian
Cordillera
Inutian Mountains
3 lowlands
Hudson Bay lowlands
Great lakes/ St.Lawrence lowlands.
Interior plains.
Canadian
Shield.
Soil
4 components
air, soil, water and humus (dead stuff)
layers:Dead leaves, A horizon humus layer,
B horizon subsoil, Bedrock, Parent
material.
Podzols are found in forests with deciduous
trees.
chernozems are thick grassland areas that
cover large areas of the prairies.
flora is plant life
fauna is animal life.
Plate tectonics
in 1915, Alfred Weigner came up with
continental drift. He noticed how the earth
looked like a big puzzle.
Evidence: Geologic fit
Fossil evidence
Geologic match
In 1960's J. Tuzo Wilson came up with
Plate tectonics. This is where the Earth is
on plates that are moving away from each
other slowly.
Earthquakes and ocean ridges occur when
two plates and passing one another. They
scrape or they overlap causing damage.
You get volcanoes when the plates are
moving away and mountains when they
move together.
Era
4 geologic eras
Pre Cambrian era
oldest and longest era. The Canadian
shield was being formed. Mostly igneous
rock being found. Shield worn down by
erosion and first single cell organisms.
Paleozoic
Age of the invertebrates. Plates begin to
collide. The Appalachian mountains are
forming. 375 million years long.
Mesozoic
Age of the reptiles. Birds and mammals
appear. Western cordillera forming.
Cenozoic
Age of the hominids( humans) Most of
Canada covered in glaciers. Formed most
of Canada today.
BLOWER
Bodies of Water
Water moderates
temperature
Lake effect snow
Latitude (temperature)
further from the equator, cooler the
temperature.
albedo
Ocean current
water does not change temperature as
quickly as air does.The water temperature
will have an affect on the areas surrounding
them.
currents travelling to equator are are cooler
and currents travelling away from equator
are warm.
Relief/ Landforms
moist air forced up a mountain can result in
precipitation.
on the other side there's dry air.
Wind/Air masses
air moves in large volumes called air
masses
temperature and moisture of air masses
depend on their origination.
JET STREAM
Elevation/ Altitude
Air mass edges are called fronts
air altitude increases temperature
decreases.
Macro spheres
hydrosphere
All of the Earth's water in it's solid, liquid
and gas forms
biosphere
The area inside the earth where life can
exist
lithosphere
The earth's outer layer of rock
atmosphere
All of the earth's gases.
Convection
When convection pushes the crust
together you get mountains. (it
compresses and folds)
When convection pulls the crust apart it
forms cracks. (valleys). A fault appears
causing earthquakes.
When two faults appear at the same time,
it causes a rift valley.
There is a rift valley between Ottawa and
the New York state.
Erosion is the wearing down of something.
Wind, water ice and gravity are factors of
erosion.
the debris is moved somewhere else by
nature. (desposition)
a mound of debris in between two
glaciers is called a moraine. ( there is
one in Oakville)
glaciers are overgrown land icebergs. They
grow shrink and move.
When they move they scrape the land of
vegetation, minerals, rocks, soil and deposit
it somewhere else.
Rocks
three types of rocks
igrneous
pumice
Intrusive
this is when the rock cools inside the earth.
extrusive
this is when the rock cools outside of the
Earth.
made from magma inside t he Earth and
then cooled inside or outside of the earth.
metamorphic
slate
It is a mixture of both rocks;hence the name
metamorphic.
sedimentary
sandstone
made from sediments under the sea
Are all formed in neverending cycle. It
could be a web because you can go from
one point to another easily.
Climate vs weather
what is weather/
weather is what is
happening at a specific
time.
what is climate?
climate is the patterns
that are watched over
along period of time (100
years).
climate is regular while
weather can be
unpredictable.
factors that affect both:
temperature and
precipitation.
frontal precipitation.
when 2 fronts meet.
The warm front is pushed over the cold
front. As air rises and cools its condenses
into water droplets. Eventually precipitation
occurs.
orographic precipitation.
wind, water vapour, rises, cools, condenses,
clouds form, rain falls, yay orographic!
convectional precipitation.
As the earth's surface is warmed, warm air
rises, cools and causes condensation.
Eventually heavy down occurs.
Happens in continental areas.
vegetaition
a biome is a large region on Earth
Thee boreal is the largest biome in the
world.
Deciduous trees 63% of Canadian
forests
coniferous trees 22%
mixed the rest
Geography, Canada and Me
What is geography?
geography is the study of the Earth, its
landforms, its resources and processes, the
people who live in the Earth and their
connection to the environment.
Geography is the study of the Earth
Three themes of Geography
Human geography
Physical geography
Geomatics
5 themes of geography
The world in spatial terms (location)
Focuses on the question where?
Where is it? How can I get there?
places and regions
each place has certain characteristics to them
How can we break up the different areas of
Canada?
change
Everything changes, either slowly or quickly
Why is this change happening? what can we
do with it?
connections and interconnections
Everything is connected in some way
We rely on systems and systems rely on us.
We are not whole unless everything is alright.
Environment and society
Without environment, there is no society.
Without society, there is no environment. We
need each other to survive.
Cardinal directions
directions are important for our way of life
16 point
compass
rose
Bearing system
Uses both numbers and directions. (N*0)
Azimuth system
just uses numbers
local location
6 figure military grid
accurate to 100m
UTM
alphanumeric grid
easy to use, but not very accurate
uses both numbers and letters
Time zones
Canada has 6 time zones.
that's about half of Russia!
Greenwich, ENG
0
Provinces and territories
capitals + Provinces
all 13
"Over Canada"
Peggy's cove
Niagara falls
What is a map?
A map is a 2D representation of
features on the Earth.
Topographic maps
Longitude + Latitude
Thematic maps
New node
The study of maps is called cartography
12 cartographic guildlines
Scale
5 types of scale.
Graphical scale
New node
Word Scale
Representative
ratio
Not to scale
Scale unkown
Contour lines
They show elevation on a map.
Rules:
1. They never touch or overlap
2. they are continuous
3. The closer the contour lines, the steeper the
land.
5