Geography of Canada
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Geography of Canada
Canada: international teamplayer
Canada is importantinternationally
seen as compassionate and caring
commonwealth: former British colonies
25% of world's population
south Africa, Canada, India
formed after WWII
there are 192 countries
conflict resolution, peacekeeping, diplomacy
other organizations: UNESCO, UNICEF,
NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Association), WorldBank, NGO's
Trade is all about exchanging goods andservices
Importing is all about bringing in goods fromforeign places; exporting is giving goods toforeign places
Importing gives use things we cannot grow ormanufacture in Canada; exporting gives us $$$
Canada exports raw materials, auto mobiles,airplanes, nuclear products
80% of our exports are to USA
fair trade vs. Protectionism
NAFTA( North American Free Trade Act) Wehave free trade with Mexico and USA
Tariff, Quota, Subsidy, all forms of protectionism
GDP ( gross Domestic Product) measures acountry's worth.
Canada's GDP was 1.57trillion
some companies make more than mostcountries' GDP's they have more power
JP Morgan Chase Bank ( #1 company in theworld)
the world is a global village and everyone isconnected
6th degree of separation ( we are related by 6people)
cultural awareness vs. cultural exploitation
Quality of Life
world heritage sites
one in Quebec city
GDP shows standard ofliving
developed, developing, industrialized
UNESCO ( United Nations Educational,Scientific and cultural Organization)
does Canada have culture or are we Americanwannabe's?
Do stereotypes define us?
First Aid: Helping developing countries who needsupport (myth in sorts)
Donated 0.285 of its GDP
Peace Keeping: Lester B. Pearson, A force toavoid conflict
Human Rights: Fighting for the rights of people
People on the land
four types of industries
most people work in this industry; service
refers to particular types of labour that are done
entrepreneurs are people who run their ownbusinesses
education has nothing to do with the levels ofindustry
this is important for Canadianlife
unemployment happens for many reasons;laziness is very uncommon
single mothers, visible minorities and loweducation are mos likely to be umemployed
employment is affected by the cost of operating abusiness
often relocate to lower costs
working poor; those who work, but cannot affordbasic needs
volunteering; people who work for free
single industry towns
many companies are lured by Canadaèsresources
resources are the base of materials
a resourceis anythingfound innaturethat is ofvalue
non renewable resources
operate in geologic time
operate in human time
operate in the momentfouund
money vs. the earth
environmentalist: we are the world
Pacific, Atlantic, freshwater
The Atlantic fishery collapsed because ofoverfishing.
find cod,herring there.
destructive fishing practices
lots of fish because of the shallow waters
pacific fisheries fear that theywill collapselike theAtlantic
fish found: salmon!!
salmon are caught on their migration routes
Freshwaterfisheriesare aroundthe greatlakes area
Lake Erie the most profitable lake; shallowwaters
sport fishing= $$$
three groups fighting for control of fisheries:Commercial, sport, Native
if you ate today, thank a farmer
1 in 5 jobs are related to agriculture
farming is based off of chance
growing season is above 5*C
extensive and intensive farming
intensive farming; small land, high valueperishable's foods with more workers and fewequipment
degradation of farmland: erosion, overuse
extensive farming is large land, non perishable foods with lotsof equipment
in the 1880s 80% of Canadians were farmers,now less than 3%
10% of worlds forests inCanada
almost 1/2 of Canada is forests
two basic types of wood; softwood andhardwood
softwood lumber makes pulp and paper
hardwood lumber makes planks and lumber
big tree become lumber and small trees makepulp and paper
the industry creates a lot of money ($22 billion)
high value of wood caused clear cuttingpractices
over consumption threatensthe forestry industry at everylevel.
everything in our lives has todo with mining
mining produces the highmultiplier effect; where themore you process it, thehigher value there is.
a mineral is a naturallyoccurring pure chemicalcompound( includingelements)
industrial minerals; diamonds
metallic minerals; gold
structural minerals; gravol
fuel minerals; coal
types of mining
open pit mining; for mineralsnear the edge then go lowerin the Earth
strip mining; for mineralsclose to the surface of the Earth
underground mining; forminerals further in the earth;most dangerous
Canada is one of the topenergy users in the world
non renewable and renewableresources.
Canada has fossil fuels,hydrocarbons, hydroelectricity and nuclear
hydroelectric energy needs a slope and water
Ontario is the largest user of Nuclear energy inCanada.
it is cheap, clean energy.
coal used to be popular, but it causes toomuch pollution
most of our coal comes from Alberta
it is found underwater too, but very difficult toextract
also in the North, too expensive to bother...fornow
Tar sands are mucky areas of sand mixedwith oil.
greenhouse gases trap heat to the Earth.
global warming; climate change
carbon oxygen cycle
Natural gas usually found above oil, but it verytemperamental; use with caution
good for home heating, used in power plantsto generate electricity
Average Canadian footprint is 8 hectares
figure out how much space we need to liveour lives
transportation of goods that are not availablein different areas.
highway 401 is the largest highway inNorth America
Cars are the most popular form oftransportation for Canadians
four major waterway; Hudson bay, greatlakes, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean.
Canada's Cultural Diversity
population is the number of people wholive in a given area at a given time.
population is dynamic
this is the meausre of the number ofpeople who live in a standardized area.
Canada's population density is 3.1 peopleper km2.
birth rate, death rate, immigration,emigration
birth rate the amount of babies born in apopulation. Usually written in a rate per 1000people.
death rate is the amount of people who die ina population. It is usually written as a rate per1000 people.
immigration iswhen peoplemove fromone country toanother.
Emigration is when people move out of acountry to another.
calculating natural increase: birth rate deathrate
using colour shades to represent an amountof something using 36 different classes.
can only use one colour (moncromatic)
Ecumene: where the population lives. Thisis the Windsor Quebec city corridor
different types of settlements.
hamlet, village, town, city, megacity, CMA,megatopolis...
demography is the study ofpopulationtrends.
rates can be shown as a percentage
shows population patterns.
Divides the population by age and bygender
males on the left, females on the right
15 and under and 65 and over
they take up appropriately 1/3 of Canada'spopulation.
from 19451960, more babies thanexpected were born.
this cold be because the war was over,soldiers came home to a safeenvironment.
uses arrows and colours to showimportance.
the bigger the symbol,the more important itis.
the fatter the arrow, the more important itis.
people immigrate fro many reasons
push + pull factors
Some factors are: war, education,prosecution, refuge etc...
push factors are what make you want toleave a country
pull factors are what attract you to anothercountry
how to get intoCanada:
if you have a health issue or a criminalrecord, there's a very slim to none chance ofgetting in.
different classes to apply into:
skilled workers class
people with education and work experiencethat can help them find a job and help theeconomy
people who are going to put money toCanada.
provinces can nominate someone who hasapplied to work in a specific field in theirprovince.
You can bring siblings, parents,grandparents, children, commonlawpartners, spouses, nephews, nieces andgrandchildren.
you can only apply under this class if youhave proof that you are not safe in yourcountry.
currently you need a minimum of 67 of the100 points to get inon the test.
education is the highest category on the test.
a policy that encourages cultural diversityand respect
there are ethnic enclaves in Canada (GreekTown)
tossed salad vs. melting pot
the ways that people behave
language, religion, family traditions, clothing,food, sports
The ways people affect their surroundings
breaking up the land
&quot;Long lot&quot; system
line+ concessions system
over 90% of Canadians live in urban areas.
there are transportation cities, manufacturingcities, resource cities, service cities
many ways to use the land
Institutional + public buildings
roads, highways, parking lots
commercial landuse; meant for buying andselling goods only
Low order, middle order, high order types ofstores
feeling alone among thousands ofpeople
cost of living is higher
more people+ more crime
areas that cannot be used for their originalpurpose
this is when there is conflicting landuse
deterioration of landscape.
mixed land use
also known as first nations
often tried to be destroyed for the land byEuropeans
colonize, kill, residential schools
us vs. them
Canada's physical diversity
4.6 billion years old
possibly formed by a meteor
third planet from the sun
looks like a large blue and green ball fromspace
Different parts of the Earth
The liquidy area just under the crust andabove the core.
the centre of the earth.
the hard outside layer of the Earth; whatwe see.
a group of different parts that connect to makea whole
Communication systems, transportationsystems, information systems etc...
What makes a natural system?
supports all living things
are driven by energy from the sun
are connected to one another in complexrelationships
decomposes and recycles all waste
are affected natural and human influence
are not well understood by humans
operate on very long timelines
use all four spheres
when the sum has more value than the parts
There are seven landform regions.
Hudson Bay lowlands
Great lakes/ St.Lawrence lowlands.
air, soil, water and humus (dead stuff)
layers:Dead leaves, A horizon humus layer, B horizon subsoil, Bedrock, Parentmaterial.
Podzols are found in forests with deciduoustrees.
chernozems are thick grassland areas thatcover large areas of the prairies.
flora is plant life
fauna is animal life.
in 1915, Alfred Weigner came up withcontinental drift. He noticed how the earthlooked like a big puzzle.
Evidence: Geologic fit
In 1960's J. Tuzo Wilson came up withPlate tectonics. This is where the Earth ison plates that are moving away from eachother slowly.
Earthquakes and ocean ridges occur whentwo plates and passing one another. Theyscrape or they overlap causing damage.
You get volcanoes when the plates aremoving away and mountains when theymove together.
4 geologic eras
Pre Cambrian era
oldest and longest era. The Canadianshield was being formed. Mostly igneousrock being found. Shield worn down byerosion and first single cell organisms.
Age of the invertebrates. Plates begin tocollide. The Appalachian mountains areforming. 375 million years long.
Age of the reptiles. Birds and mammalsappear. Western cordillera forming.
Age of the hominids( humans) Most ofCanada covered in glaciers. Formed mostof Canada today.
Bodies of Water
Lake effect snow
further from the equator, cooler thetemperature.
water does not change temperature asquickly as air does.The water temperaturewill have an affect on the areas surroundingthem.
currents travelling to equator are are coolerand currents travelling away from equatorare warm.
moist air forced up a mountain can result inprecipitation.
on the other side there's dry air.
air moves in large volumes called airmasses
temperature and moisture of air massesdepend on their origination.
Air mass edges are called fronts
air altitude increases temperaturedecreases.
All of the Earth's water in it's solid, liquidand gas forms
The area inside the earth where life canexist
The earth's outer layer of rock
All of the earth's gases.
When convection pushes the crusttogether you get mountains. (itcompresses and folds)
When convection pulls the crust apart itforms cracks. (valleys). A fault appearscausing earthquakes.
When two faults appear at the same time,it causes a rift valley.
There is a rift valley between Ottawa andthe New York state.
Erosion is the wearing down of something.Wind, water ice and gravity are factors oferosion.
the debris is moved somewhere else bynature. (desposition)
a mound of debris in between twoglaciers is called a moraine. ( there isone in Oakville)
glaciers are overgrown land icebergs. Theygrow shrink and move.
When they move they scrape the land ofvegetation, minerals, rocks, soil and depositit somewhere else.
three types of rocks
this is when the rock cools inside the earth.
this is when the rock cools outside of theEarth.
made from magma inside t he Earth andthen cooled inside or outside of the earth.
It is a mixture of both rocks;hence the namemetamorphic.
made from sediments under the sea
Are all formed in neverending cycle. Itcould be a web because you can go fromone point to another easily.
Climate vs weather
what is weather/
weather is what ishappening at a specifictime.
what is climate?
climate is the patternsthat are watched overalong period of time (100years).
climate is regular whileweather can beunpredictable.
factors that affect both:
when 2 fronts meet.
The warm front is pushed over the coldfront. As air rises and cools its condensesinto water droplets. Eventually precipitationoccurs.
wind, water vapour, rises, cools, condenses,clouds form, rain falls, yay orographic!
As the earth's surface is warmed, warm airrises, cools and causes condensation.Eventually heavy down occurs.
Happens in continental areas.
a biome is a large region on Earth
Thee boreal is the largest biome in theworld.
Deciduous trees 63% of Canadianforests
coniferous trees 22%
mixed the rest
Geography, Canada and Me
What is geography?
geography is the study of the Earth, itslandforms, its resources and processes, thepeople who live in the Earth and theirconnection to the environment.
Geography is the study of the Earth
Three themes of Geography
5 themes of geography
The world in spatial terms (location)
Focuses on the question where?
Where is it? How can I get there?
places and regions
each place has certain characteristics to them
How can we break up the different areas ofCanada?
Everything changes, either slowly or quickly
Why is this change happening? what can wedo with it?
connections and interconnections
Everything is connected in some way
We rely on systems and systems rely on us.We are not whole unless everything is alright.
Environment and society
Without environment, there is no society.Without society, there is no environment. Weneed each other to survive.
directions are important for our way of life
Uses both numbers and directions. (N*0)
just uses numbers
6 figure military grid
accurate to 100m
easy to use, but not very accurate
uses both numbers and letters
Canada has 6 time zones.
that's about half of Russia!
Provinces and territories
capitals + Provinces
What is a map?
A map is a 2D representation offeatures on the Earth.
Longitude + Latitude
The study of maps is called cartography
12 cartographic guildlines
5 types of scale.
Not to scale
They show elevation on a map.
1. They never touch or overlap
2. they are continuous
3. The closer the contour lines, the steeper theland.