Nature vs Nurture

Nature vs Nurture
Nature
Roots of the approach
biology
physiology
genetics
nativist philosophy
evolutionary theory
Causes of behaviour
genetic determinism
inherited influence
neurochemical and hormonal influences
brain activity
Methods employed
twin/adoption studies
brain scanning
brain stimulation/brain damage studies
drug testing
Implications
due to biological determinism, behaviour can only be changed through physical means
selective breeding
gene therapy
brain surgery
drugs
Criticisms
reductionist
may neglect environmental influences
Nurture
roots of the approach
emprical philosophy
behaviourism
mind seen as tablua rasa
knowledge, behaviour seen as result of
experience
learning from environment
methods employed
use of conditioning techniques (classical, operational) to affect behaviour
manipulation of social environment to change behaviour
implications
manipulation of reinforcement of environment
anybody can be trained to do anything
criticisms
reductionist
may neglect innate influences
Areas of Explanation
Perception
Aggression
Gender
Abnormality
Language acquisition
Continuum Approach
Cognitive Development
Piaget: Innate schema develop according to influences from environment
Abnormality
e.g. schizophrenia, may have genetic basis, but develops according to environmental conditions
Perception
Blakemore & Cooper: restricted visual environment can physically affect brain structural development
Sex-role behaviour
Physical sex and innate temperament of a new baby elicits sex-typing, this then affects gender development
The Spectrum of Approaches
Biopsychology:
genetic, hormonal, neurochemical explanations of behaviour
Psychoanalytic
instinctual drives, restricted by the demands of the ego and superego
Cognitive
innate information processing abilities that are constantly refined by experience
Humanistic psychology
accepts basic physiological needs, but focus is on experience
Behaviourism
virtually all behaviour comes from the environment via conditioning
NATURE
NURTURE
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