Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Risk Factors
Clinical Manifestations
Incidence/Prevalence
Sources
Diagnostics
Treatments
Pathogenesis
Genetics
Alpha1antitrypsin deficiency
Increase risk for lung and liver disease
Age
Occurs in people at least 40 years of age or older
Environmental
Occupations involved in with dust and chemicals
Exposure to fumes
Poor ventilated homes
Smoking
Exposure to tobacco smoke
Pipe smokers
Cigar smokers
Marijuana smokers
People with asthma who smoke
Wheezing
Dyspnea
Cyanosis of lips and fingernail beds
Clubbing of fingernails
Chest tightness
Ongoing cough
With sputum
Grey
Yellow
White
Fever
Edema in ankles, feet, or legs
Colds or other respiratory infections
Flu
Lower muscle endurance or lack of energy
Weight loss
Barrel chest
3rd leading cause of death in the world
About 64 million people around the world have COPD
About 3 million deaths
About 90% occur in low and middle income countries
12.714.7 million adults have COPD in U.S.
120,000 deaths in U.S. per year
Highest incidence
Older adults
Occurs more often in females than males
People who smoke
About 80% of all COPD deaths
Belleza, M. (2017, September 26). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Care Management. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://nurseslabs.com/chronicobstructivepulmonarydiseasecopd/
Chaudhry, S., Dua, B., & Wong, E. (n.d.). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from http://www.pathophys.org/copd/#Pathogenesis_pathophysiology_and_clinical_features
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (2016, November). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en/
COPD. (2017, August 11). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseasesconditions/copd/symptomscauses/dxc20204886
Diagnosis. (2017, April 28). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/healthtopics/topics/copd/diagnosis
Pietrangelo, A. (2015, February 18). COPD by the Numbers: Facts, Statistics, and You. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.healthline.com/health/copd/factsstatisticsinfographic#6
Nursing Central App
Pulmonary function test
Spirometry
Evaluates airway obstruction
Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, forced expiratory flow, residual volume, functional residual capacity
Indicates air trapping and airway obstructiom
Chest xray/chest CT scan
Arterial blood gas test
Determine severity of COPD
Measure oxygenation and gas exchange
Health history
Physical examination
Screening for alpha1antitrypsin levels
An enzyme that protects lung parenchyma
Performed at 45 years of age or younger
Oximetry
Determine adequate oxygenation
Sputum and culture sensitivity
Tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
Identifies pathogens
Bronchogram
ECG test
ECG stress test
Change lifestyle
Quit smoking
Avoid lung irritants
Second hand smoke
Dust
Fumes
Toxic chemicals
Eat meals that meet nutritional needs and take vitamins
Pharmacological
Bronchodilators
Relax muscles around airways
Take with glucocorticosteroids
Reduces inflammation in airway
Antibiotics
Help with respiratory infection
Amoxicillin
Doxycycline
Azithromycin
Erythromycin
Cough suppressants
Xanthines
Reduce mucosal edema and spasms
Vaccinations
Flu shot
Pneumococcal vaccine
Pulmonary rehabilitation
Oxygen therapy
Increase levels of O2 in blood
Improves breathing
Protects internal organs
Surgery
Bullectomy
Removing large air spaces in lungs will improve breathing
Lung Volume Reduction
Removing damaged lung tissue
Lung transplant
Emphysema
Alpha1antitrypsin deficiency
Breakdown of elastin fibers
Inflammation
Recruitment of neutrophils to bronchioles and alveoli
Proteolytic enzymes and elastase enzymes are released
Chronic bronchitis
Exposure to irritants cause inflammation in airways
Inflammation
Increase in oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and cytokines
Fibrosis of bronchioles walls
Airway edema
Enlargement of submucosal glands
Mucous production increases
Dysfunction of ciliary bodies
Damage to epithelial cells
Leukocytes and lymphocytes infiltrate bronchioles
Hypoventilation
Bronchoconstriction
Hypoxemia
Hypercapnia
Production of sputum
Breakdown of connective tissue.
Destruction of alveolar walls, septae and capillaries
Impaired gas diffusion
Loss of elastic recoil
Bullae develops
Loss of alveolar attachments
Air trapping occurs during expiration
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