Conflict

Conflict
Behavioral Strategies
What is Conflict?
Team Satisfaction
Mediators of Conflict
ISD & Conflict
Team Performance
Types of Conflict
Behavioral Styles
Relationship
Task
Procedural
Asserting
Win/lose where one side must
dominate
Accommodating
Win/lose where one side must
yield to other
Compromising
Multiple Win/lose where sides
take turns to yield to each other
Problem solving
opportunity to incorporate all views into
Winwin solution. Aim to maximize all parties
satisfaction
Avoiding
Conflict is not entered and
indifference is shown towards the
situation
50% of performance accounted for by
Existing levels of conflict
Team member characteristics
Team characteristics
Conflict Management / Resolution
moderates impact of conflict on
performance
effective resolution associated
with positive interdependence
Task Complexity
Conflict during routine tasks not
beneficial
Conflict during nonroutine
tasks beneficial
Task vs Relationship Conflict
Negative Emotionality
associated with poor team
performance
Relationship conflict more
detrimental than Task conflict
Effective teams rely on cooperative
conflict resolution over competitive
conflict
Time
High Performing Team
Low level of relationship conflict
Low level of task conflict increasing
in middle of project and declining at
end
Low Performing Team
Low conflict until end where
conflict peaks
Structure
Performance enabled by trust &
respect
Norms
Supporting open discussion of
conflict during middle stages of
project
Confidence in Professional
relationships
Reliance on Cooperative conflict
Decision Quality
Positively related to positive
interdependence
Goal Setting
Cooperative goals increase
organizational effectiveness
User Participation / Involvement
Initial levels of involvement &
attitude little influence on
participation
User participation impacts future
attitude and involvement
Participation strongly
associated with influenced
Influence associated with conflict
Developer & Tester Relationship
Source of Conflict
Organisation
Power & politics
Process
Documentation
Procedure
Resource
Standards
People
Attitude
View
Focus
Knowledge
Communication
Left out of loop
Misunderstanding of responsibilities
Last minute
Not communicating changes
Lack of feedback
Resolution
Structure for Success
Colocation of staff
Remove Developer tester divide
Integrate staff e.g. reduce
'intellectual distance'
Management signal importance
of issues
Careful performance metrics to
incentivize cooperation
People
Conflict Resolution Training
Frequent contact between staff
Structured work activities
acquaint actors with each others
work
Process
Time management
Ensure common goals
e.g. Timely deliver & quality
Stakeholder
Frame incompatibility
Inability to answer questions in
terms of others world view
Language differences
Incompatible / specialized knowledge
Power relationships
certain groups given superiority
resulting in other groups being
ignored
ISD models
Waterfall model
Manages conflict via suppression
Power relationship between
developer & user
Rigid & structured interaction
Iterative Incremental model
Manages conflict via iteration
User & developer have more
balanced power relationship
User & developer have shared
goals encouraging cooperative
behaviour
Component based Development model
Manages conflict via contract
negotiation
Perceptual Frame
Gain vs Loss Framing
Personal Characteristics
No significant effect
Team Characteristics
No significant effect
Structural Characteristics
Norms encouraging/accepting conflict
Scarcity of Resources
Power, Trust
Communication
Task Interdependence
Task Importance
All types of conflict negatively related
Negative emotion negatively related
Relationship conflicts have more
negative impact that task
conflict
Role ambiguity has greater
impact than role conflict
Interdependence
Positive
Negative
Disagreement
Interference
Negative Emotion
Integrative component
Extent that total outcome for
both parties is maximised
positively related to positive
interdependence
negatively related to relationship
conflict
Distributive component
Extent that an unequal
outcome is maximised
negatively related to positive
interdependence
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