14 Disability Categories Under IDEA
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14 Disability Categories Under IDEA
Autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Use Structure Consistency Clear/ Simple directions
I-pad, Adapted e-books, visual support for classroom (ex. symbols)
Case Study: Anderson
Developmental delay affects children from birth to age three and children from ages three through nine, the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or behavioral development.
Speak slowlyPraise specific accomplishmentLet student work at own paceBreak tasks into smaller steps
Emotional disturbance is condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics::(a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
Active Schedule, let student self monitor work progress, allow student to chose between 2 tasks.
Word processing software assists in the writing process
Case Studey: Megan
Intellectual Disability (Formaly as "Mental Retardation")
Intellectual disability was previously called 'mental retardation'. It significantly affects general intellectual functioning, along with adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.
Instructions need to be concrete, step by step & simplified. Let student partner work and work on life skills.
Youtube video on communicators
Specific Learning Disability
It is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Give extra time to help process information from reading/ listening. Use "read-along" techniques. Use visuals to relate to words.
AT: Educational videos Word processor will help with illegible writing
Case Study: Ellie - Reading & Writing Learning Disability
Case Study - Nick - Math Learning Disability
Speech Language Impairment
It is a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Use active listening, incorporate the student's interest. Paraphrase what the student has said.
First Words software Augmentative or alternative communication(AAC)
Traumatic Brain Injury
means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Allow extended breaks, and to audio record lectures. Seat near front of class. Avoid high pressure situations
Laptop for notes/ writing and calculator for tests
Video on:"What Schools Need to Know About Children with Brain Injury"
Other Health Impairment
It refers to having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Be flexible as the students will need medical and health servicesTeach organization techniques Post daily/ weekly scheduleKeep schedule as consistent as possible
Tools for supporting ADHD Notebook/ dividers to organize homeworkPersonal digital assistantDictating machine
It refers to concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.
On going support with walking, lifting, bending, Allow partial participationFamiliarize with student IEPDon't give up on a goal; practice and reinforceDeal with behavior issues
ComputerAugmentative/ alternative communication systemsCommunication boards
It is a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
Special seating, focus on gross and fine motor skills, physical/occupational therapy, adapted PE
Cane, walker, specialized exercise equipment
Visual Impairment Including Blindness
It is an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Hands-on experiences, models, clear directions, peer note taker, extra time for responses
Low Vision devices, Braillewriter, Personal digital assistant (PDA)
Hearing impairment is an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”
Keep noise level minimum, write assignments on board, adhere to classroom routine.
Remote microphone hearing assistance technology (HAT) for hearing aid; FM system for school assemblies
Deafness is a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Priority seating, Ensure student's attention before signing, reduce visual distractions, provide ASL
AT: Videophone or Text Phone, Alerting devices
It is concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
Safe classroom so the student can move on his own. Develop travel routes. Curriculum oriented towards building concepts
TTY (telephone) or TDD(telecommunication device for the deaf) or TT (text), IP Phone Access- uses Braille and computer, AIM text messaging