The pyramid principle

the pyramid principle
logic for writing
chapter 1 why pyramid?
All mental processes--aggregation of pyramids
Readers can only take one sentence a time, and you have to tell them the logic relation in advance. Otherwise,they will use their own theories to understand your sentences.
chapter 2 three substructures in a pyramid
1.vertical relationship between points and subpoints
question/answer
1.background-->question(do not raise question sharply)
2.for reader:you have to make him:Q/S--Q/S--Q/S--noQ(one leg of the pyramid,logically)
2.horizontal relationship within a set of subpoints
only 2 types of logical relationships
1.deductive
2.inductive
3.narrative flow of the introduction
you write to tell sb do not know.But only if he needs to know, he would raise a question.
1.Situation
2.Complication
the things occurred which make the reader raise a question.
3.Question
4.Answer
chapter 3 how to build a pyramid?
before your writing check the three rules
1.Ideas at any level must be summaries of the ideas grouped below them.
multi-layer
2.Ideas in each grouping must be the same kind of idea.
shortcut for check:label all of them with a plural noun
3.Ideas in each grouping must be logically ordered.
only 4 logical order
1.deductively
2.chronologically(first,second,third)
3.structurally(beijing,shanghai,nanjing)
4.comparatively(first most important,second most important,etc)
the common problem: you know sth but not clearly;you want to say but do not know how to say.
with pyramid,to date,you know
1.subject+predicate(top)
2.It is the answer to the question raised by readers.
3.the question is raised by SCQA
two approaches
top-down
fill in the top box
1.what subject are you discussing?
2.what question are you answering?
3.what is the answer?
match the answer to the introduction
4.what is the situation?
5.what is the complication?
2.do the question and answer still follow?
find the key line
6.what new question is raised by the answer?
7.will you answer it deductively or inductively?
7.if inductively,what is your plural noun?
structure the support points
8.repeat the Q/A process at this level
the legend
legend
the pyramid example
an example
bottom-up
list all the points you want to make
work out the relationships between them
draw conclusions
chapter 4 write a good introduction
1.where do you start the situation?
make a statement about the subject that you know the reader will agree with
2.what is a complication?
complication example
1.something went wrong
2.something could go wrong
3.something changed
4.something could change
5.here is what you might expect to find in it
6.here is someone with a different point of view
7.in this situation we have three alternatives
corresponding questions
1.what do we do?
2.how can we prevent it?
3.what should we do?
4.how should we react?
5.do we find it ?
6.who is right?
7.which one should we take?
3.why that order?
situation-complication-solution
solution-situation-complication
complication-situation-solution
4.what about the key line?
not only gives the answer to the new question(step 6 in the legend) raised by the statement of your Main Point(top box, i.e.,answer), it also indicates the plan of the document
5.five common patterns
1.directives
2.requests for funds
3.how to
4.letters of proposal
5progress reviews
6.transitions between groups
referencing backward
picking up a Word or Phrase or the Main idea of the preceding portion of the pyramid that you are linking, and using it in your Opening Sentence.
summarizing
restate main idea of the preceding text gracefully only where needed(e.g.,a long section)
concluding
logic for thinking
chapter 5 deduction and induction
deduction
lower level in the pyramid
induction
two major skills
defining the ideas in the grouping
identifying the misfits among them
chapter 6 order of a grouping
chapter 7 process of problem solving
five typical logic trees
1.financial structure
2.task structure
3.activity structure
4.choice structure
5.sequential structure
chapter 8 summary statement
chapter 9 put it into readable words
logic for presenting
13