Middle School Math Concepts

Middle School Math Concepts
Numbers and Operations
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
compare and order fractions, decimals, and percents efficiently and find their approximate locations on a number line
develop meaning for percents greater than 100 and less than 1
understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships
develop an understanding of large numbers and recognize and appropriately use exponential, scientific, and calculator notation
use factors, multiples, prime factorization, and relatively prime numbers to solve problems
develop meaning for integers and represent and compare quantities with them
work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems
Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates
select appropriate methods and tools for computing with fractions and decimals from among mental computation, estimation, calculators or computers, and paper and pencil, depending on the situation, and apply the selected methods
develop and analyze algorithms for computing with fractions, decimals, and integers and develop fluency in their use
develop and use strategies to estimate the results of rational-number computations and judge the reasonableness of the results
develop, analyze, and explain methods for solving problems involving proportions, such as scaling and finding equivalent ratios
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems
work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems
compare and order fractions, decimals, and percents efficiently and find their approximate locations on a number line
develop meaning for percents greater than 100 and less than 1
understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships
develop an understanding of large numbers and recognize and appropriately use exponential, scientific, and calculator notation
use factors, multiples, prime factorization, and relatively prime numbers to solve problems
develop meaning for integers and represent and compare quantities with them
Algebra
Understand patterns, relations, and functions
represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and, when possible, symbolic rules
relate and compare different forms of representation for a relationship
identify functions as linear or nonlinear and contrast their properties from tables, graphs, or equations
Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols
develop an initial conceptual understanding of different uses of variables
explore relationships between symbolic expressions and graphs of lines, paying particular attention to the meaning of intercept and slope
use symbolic algebra to represent situations and to solve problems, especially those that involve linear relationships
recognize and generate equivalent forms for simple algebraic expressions and solve linear equations
Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships
model and solve contextualized problems using various representations, such as graphs, tables, and equations
Analyze change in various contexts
use graphs to analyze the nature of changes in quantities in linear relationships
Geometry
Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships
precisely describe, classify, and understand relationships among types of two- and three-dimensional objects using their defining properties
understand relationships among the angles, side lengths, perimeters, areas, and volumes of similar objects
create and critique inductive and deductive arguments concerning geometric ideas and relationships, such as congruence, similarity, and the Pythagorean relationship
Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems
use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric shapes
use coordinate geometry to examine special geometric shapes, such as regular polygons or those with pairs of parallel or perpendicular sides
Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations
describe sizes, positions, and orientations of shapes under informal transformations such as flips, turns, slides, and scaling
examine the congruence, similarity, and line or rotational symmetry of objects using transformations
Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems
draw geometric objects with specified properties, such as side lengths or angle measures
use two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects to visualize and solve problems such as those involving surface area and volume
use visual tools such as networks to represent and solve problems
use geometric models to represent and explain numerical and algebraic relationships
recognize and apply geometric ideas and relationships in areas outside the mathematics classroom, such as art, science, and everyday life
Measurement
Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement
understand both metric and customary systems of measurement
understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within the same system
understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure angles, perimeter, area, surface area, and volume
Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements
use common benchmarks to select appropriate methods for estimating measurements
select and apply techniques and tools to accurately find length, area, volume, and angle measures to appropriate levels of precision
develop and use formulas to determine the circumference of circles and the area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles and develop strategies to find the area of more-complex shapes
develop strategies to determine the surface area and volume of selected prisms, pyramids, and cylinders
solve problems involving scale factors, using ratio and proportion
solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such attributes as velocity and density
Data Analysis and Probability
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them
formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a characteristic shared by two populations or different characteristics within one population
select, create, and use appropriate graphical representations of data, including histograms, box plots, and scatterplots
Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data
find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread, including mean and interquartile range
discuss and understand the correspondence between data sets and their graphical representations, especially histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, box plots, and scatterplots
Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data
use observations about differences between two or more samples to make conjectures about the populations from which the samples were taken
make conjectures about possible relationships between two characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and approximate lines of fit
use conjectures to formulate new questions and plan new studies to answer them
Understand and apply basic concepts of probability
understand and use appropriate terminology to describe complementary and mutually exclusive events
use proportionality and a basic understanding of probability to make and test conjectures about the results of experiments and simulations
compute probabilities for simple compound events, using such methods as organized lists, tree diagrams, and area models
Process
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