Wlodkowski's Motivational Strategies in Adult Learning

Wlodkowski's Motivational
Strategies in Adult Learning
Engendering competence
Provide effective feedback
Avoid cultural bias and promote equity in assessment procedures
make assessment tasks and criteria clearly known to learners prior to their use
use authentic performance tasks to deepen new learning and help learners proficiency apply this learning to their real lives
provide opportunities for adults to demonstrate their learning in ways that reflect their strengths and multiple sources of learning
when using rubrucs, make sure they assess the essential features of performance and are fair, valid, and sufficiently clear so that learners can accurately self-assess
use self-assessment methods to improve learning and to provide learners with the opporunity to construct relevant insights and connections.
foster the intention and capacity to transfer learning
when necessary, use constructive criticism
effectively praise and reward learning
use incentives to develop and maintain adult motivation in learning activities that are initially unappealing but personally valued
when learing has natural consequences, help learners to be aware of them and their ipact
provide positive closure at the end of significant units of leaning
Enhancing meaning
Provide frequent response opportunities to all learners on an equitable basis
Help learners realize their accountability for what they are learning
Provide variety in the personal presentation style, modes of instruciton, and learning materials
Introduce, connect, and end learning activities attractively and clearly
Selectively use breaks, settling time, and physical exercises
Relate learning to individuals interests, concerns and values
When possible, clearly state or demonstrate the benefits that will result from the learning activity
While instructing, use humor liberally and frequesnntly
selectively induce parapathic emotions
selectively use examples, analogies, metaphors, and stories
use uncertainty, anticiptation, and prediciton to the degree that learners enjoy them with a sense of security
use concept maps to develop and link intersting ideas and infomrmation
use critical questions to stimulate engaging and challenging reflection and discussion
use relavant problems, research, and inquiry to facilitate learning
use case study methods to enhance meaning
use role playing to embody meaning and new learning within a more realistic and dynamic context
use simulations and games to embody the learning of mutliple concepts and skills that require a real-life context and practice to be learned
use visits, internships, and service learning to raise awarenss, provide practice, and embody the learning of concepts and skills in authenric settings.
use invention, artistry, imagination and enactment to render deeper meaning and emotion on learning
Developing attitude
Eliminate or minimize any negative conditions that surround the subject
Positively confront the erroneous beliefs, expectations, and assumptions that may underlie a negative learner attitude.
Use differentiated instruction to enhance sucessful learning of new content
Use assisted learning to scaffold complex learning
Promote learners' personal control of learning
Help learners understand that reasonable effort and knowledge can help them avoid faulure at learning tasks that suit their capability
Use relevant models to demonstrate expected learning
Encourage the learners
Make the criteria of assessment as fair and clear as possible
Help learners understand and plan for the amount of time needed for successful learning
Use goal-setting methods
Use learning contracts
Use the entry points suggested by multiple intelligences theory as ways of learning about a topic or concept
Make the learning activity an irresistible invitation to learn
Use the K-W-L strategy to introduce new topics and cocepts (Learners idenitfy what they KNOW what they WANT TO KNOW, and what they have LEARNED)
Establishing inclusion
Allow for introductions
Provide an opportunity for multidimensional sharing
Concretely indicate your cooperative intentios to help adults learn
Share something of value with your adult learners
Use collaboartive and cooperative learning
Clearly identify the learning objectives and goals for instruction
Emphasize the human purpose of what is being learned and its relationship to the learners' personal lives and current situations
Assess learners' current expectations, needs, goals, and previous experience as it relates to your course or training
Explicitly introduce important norms and particiaptons guidelines
When issuing mandatory assignments or trianing requirements, give your rationale for them
Acknowledge different ways of knowing, different languages, and different levels of knowledge or skill among learners