Influence - Robert B. Cialdini

Influence -
Robert B. Cialdini
About the Book
Reciprocation
Scarcity
Consistency
Consensus
Liking
Title
Publisher
Author
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Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
Harper Business; Revised edition (December 26, 2006)
Robert B. Cialdini
Dr. Robert Cialdini is the seminal expert in the
rapidly expanding field of influence and persuasion
Born April 27, 1945
Humans feel obliged to return favors.
This rule is the foundation of our society
It allows us to share resources because we
know we will receive something in return
As a society, we feel disdainful of those who don't reciprocate favors
We label them as moochers or ingrates
We fear being labeled as such ourselves
People are so keen to rid themselves of the burden
of reciprocity that they will often return much bigger favors!
What you can do:
Ask yourself if the favors you receive are genuine, or just attempts to manipulate you
Learn to identify and resist deliberate attempts of people to abuse the reciprocation principle.
When opportunities become
scarce, we desire them more.
We hate missing out!
Scarcity becomes a powerful influence
on our decision-making when...
The availability of the thing in question has decreased
suddenly, rather than slowly over time
There is direct competition
Can induce 'feeding frenzy' for a scarce good
What you can do:
Consider whether you really want the item in question because of its use to you, or because of an irrational wish to possess it
We want to stay true to our word.
Once we commit to something with words
or actions, we want to be consistent with that commitment.
Good example: Foot-in-the-door sales technique
We want our actions to be consistent with what we've said.
Especially powerful are...
Public commitments
Written words signed by yourself
Even a small commitment affects our self-image
The salesperson tries to get you
to make a very small purchase
This small commitment changes your self-perception
into one of a customer, making you open to bigger
purchases down the line
What you can do
Be wary of even small things that companies and sales people want you to purchase
Social proof: We often decide what the right
course of action is by looking at others' behavior.
Particularly powerful when we face uncertainty.
People who are similar to us can greatly influence our choices.
This is why marketers often use interviews with
ordinary people in their advertisements > It's social proof
What you can do
Be alert for counterfeit social proof
If the quotes are clearly scripted, avoid the
product and the company behind it
See also: Werther Effect
We comply with people we like.
And for some people, it is very easy to make us like them.
Salespeople will often compliment and flatter you,
and pretend to have something in common with you
We respond well to flattery and similarity
and quickly start to like those people
Physical attractiveness also plays a role
Produces a halo effect: we automatically see
attractive people also as smart, kind and honest
Cooperating for a shared goal also helps
Example: Good copy - bad cop
What you can do
Ask yourself if you have come to like something/
someone unusually strongly in a short time
If so, this could be due to manipulation,
and you should be on alert.
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