How To Be A Great Man

In addition, we should consciously overcome the "shortcut" mentality from the perspective of the near future and face challenges
We are suffering because of being fast, but time management teaches us how to be faster
For a mature person, his standard comes from his heart, while most people are influenced by the environment.
How to Become A Great Man
Five-year plan
Five years will usually pass the "next stage" of life and enter the "next stage"
If you want to get out of a different life and do something different, then in five years, you can make a long-term goal for yourself and make a lasting and solid effort for it. You need to think carefully. How to complete the forging of personal core competitiveness through bit by bit increments in life.
How Should We Think About Time
Future perspective
From the perspective of the long-term future, people tend to think in an abstract and general way. The generated ideas often lack details, and more consideration is the value and significance of this matter to oneself.
From the perspective of the near future, it is easier for people to think about specific situations, thinking more about "whether or not to do it" but "how to do it".
How to resolve two future conflicts
We always grab the sand repeatedly and spend time on things worth doing
Many problems in life are caused by the inconsistency and even conflict between the "short-term future" and the "long-term future"
Take procrastination as an example. One reason for procrastination is that there is an abstract and significant goal in the "long-term future", such as "complete a doctoral thesis and get a doctorate", while the "near future" has encountered practical obstacles and convenience. Alternative activities, such as obstacles, are unsatisfactory experimental results, and convenient alternative activities include watching movies and playing games all day long to avoid obstacles.
In this situation, people usually respond by constantly emphasizing the meaning of long-term goals. "Completing the Ph.D. is all I have." "If I drop out of the Ph.D., I will really be desperate." Not only can this not solve the problem, it may also The problem has become more serious because the conflict between the "near future" and the "long-term future" has been increased.
How to solve
On the one hand, from the perspective of "long-term future", we should "focus on tactics and ignore strategy", reduce the emphasis on value and meaning, and don't worry about what to do if the goal is not completed, but should think more about achieving the goal. For specific paths, focus on "how to do it", especially on actions that can be implemented immediately.
On the other hand, from the perspective of the “near future”, the cost of evasion should be increased, and some “extreme” measures can even be adopted, such as deleting all movies and games in the computer, cutting the network cable, replacing the mobile phone with a non-smart phone, etc. . Some people may say that the movie can still be deleted if it is deleted, the network cable can be connected again, and the mobile phone can be replaced again. Is this method useful? it works. Because although there may be repetitions, such repetitions will make the original simple and usual alternative behavior more troublesome, and the convenience of evasion is greatly reduced, which increases the possibility of the parties switching to doing experiments and reading papers Sex.
Two strategies
Make the long-term future goals more specific, contextual and implementable
Reduce the convenience of "unexpected behaviors" in the near future and actively increase the difficulty of challenges.
How to judge whether something is worth doing
Why is our time never enough?
When analyzing whether a thing is worth doing and how much energy is spent on it, you can evaluate it from two perspectives: one is the amount of benefit that this event will bring to "me" at the moment. This benefit can be the mind, At the emotional level, it can also be at the physical or material level, which I call the "return value"; the second is the rate at which this income decays over time, which I call the "return half-life". Events with a long half-life will have an impact Lasts longer.
Four types of events
High-yield value and long half-life events: find true love; learn an effective thinking technique; have a meaningful conversation with the "big cow".
High-yield value and short-half-life events: buy a dress that is popular in the season; play a mobile game for an afternoon; eat a buffet by "supporting the wall in and supporting the wall out".
Low income value, long half-life event: practice calligraphy for one hour; recite three poems; read a chapter of a philosophical book; repeat a set of skill exercises; seriously reply to a friend’s email.
Low income value and short half-life events: challenge or participate in a network pinch; aimlessly brush Weibo; use social software to spy on the privacy of strangers.
Do fewer short half-life events
Introspect for a moment, you may find that what we usually like to do and do the most is "high-yield value, short half-life events", followed by "low-yield value, short half-life events", and the other two types of long half-life events In the event, we either did very little, or did it reluctantly, or did not have the conditions to do it.
The result of this phenomenon is that we unconsciously fall into a short half-life bunker. In the sand pit, we always grab the sand again and again, but as soon as we get a little pleasure, the sand has slipped from our fingertips and we have to do it all over again. Even if this process is repeated many times, we still get the same result. Every day is a brand new day, but every day repeats yesterday’s "story".
But long half-life events are different. Its benefits can be accumulated and superimposed. Even if the visible benefit of each event is minimal, as long as its half-life is long enough, this benefit can be passed on and become a small cornerstone for future success. For example, memorizing a word or memorizing a word, although it may be forgotten in a few days, the foundation left by the first action is still there, and it can make it easier for you to memorize it again.
The fast-paced, fragmented, and utilitarian characteristics of the current society make it easy for modern people to fall into the "two incompetences", one is "choice incompetence" and the other is "implementation incompetence".
Choice incompetence: It means that it is difficult for us to judge which of two things is more important, such as which of two books to look at and which of two certificates to test. So he became Bridan’s donkey, unable to move a bit in hesitation.
Execution incompetence: It means that I know that this is important, but I just don't do it. For the majority of "procrastination patients", the more important a thing seems, the greater the fear in the heart, the easier it is to procrastinate, and the final thing is nothing.
Copper mining rule: try to do as little as possible "short half-life" things
It doesn’t matter whether the income value is high or low, as long as it is not a short half-life thing, as long as the income can be accumulated, just do it
Don't just stare at the "tall" things. Some unimportant and non-urgent things can still be done as long as they have long-term benefits for you.
Long half-life event guide
Why should we read more classics
Identify information noise in life
Time scale for evaluating information value
Parkinson’s first law: Work will automatically expand until it takes up all available time
Time management makes us faster and faster
Time management teaches us how to set goals, how to break down tasks, how to distinguish between important and urgent, how to list things and set the time... These methods undoubtedly have a certain effect, but they are only "technical solutions". -Intervene only on the surface part of the problem, while ignoring the deep root of the problem. The consequence is that the surface part of the problem reappears after a brief disappearance, and even gets worse.
Work fast, life slow
Professor Li Oufan of Harvard University believes that we should jump out of the mental inertia of blindly seeking quickness and make life more rhythmic, that is, "there is speed and slowness".
The way he slows down is to take a little time every day to "face the wall", that is, in a private space, slowly listen to his inner voice, and let his different "selves" participate in dialogue and debate. In this way, you can keep yourself out of the crowd. For other things, such as handling daily official duties such as reading emails and writing reports, the sooner the better. Mr. Li Oufan said that he takes "very limited time" to handle them.
The key to mastering the speed of life is to think clearly about what should be "fast" and what should be "slow"
Try to do things as fast as possible: doing housework and other physical activities, completing regular transactional tasks, completing simple executive tasks, buying frequently used goods online and offline, quarrels and arguments that are destined to fail to reach a consensus, etc.
Try to be as slow as possible: spend your free time with your family, appreciate works of art, self-reflection, thinking about major decisions, the brewing process in creative activities, preparing for a challenging task, etc.We are suffering because of being fast, but time management teaches us how to be faster
Improve the depth of use of time
Sociologists have discovered a "time paradox": for more than half a century, people's freely disposable leisure time has been increasing in general, but people subjectively feel that their leisure time is decreasing. This can be explained by the depth of time usage.
It is also about arranging leisure time. The satisfaction of "passive leisure" sitting in front of the TV and watching TV is far inferior to the satisfaction of engaging in a hobby. While watching TV, we can eat melon seeds, play mobile phones, and chat with people at the same time. We are not passionate about it; while in some creative activities such as writing and painting, we can be completely immersed in it, and even enter the "flow of mind". status. Therefore, the degree of relaxation and satisfaction we obtain from leisure does not depend on the length of leisure time, but on its quality.
Find and maintain at least one long-term hobby. Keep a hobby, let it grow slowly in the depth and length of time, you may get unexpected achievements.
How to make a better choice
Starting from the ultimate problem, taking the first goal of life as the first principle
Higher standards will have better choices
Decision-making psychology believes that people usually adopt the "satisfaction principle" rather than the "optimal principle" when faced with choices. The so-called principle of satisfaction means that people will start from the options they are familiar with. If they find an option that meets their inner standards, they will adopt this option, and the remaining options will be discarded instead of comparing all the options. Choose the best of them. Therefore, whether a person will make a choice as best as possible has a lot to do with the standards he adopts. If the inner standard is higher, then more options will be compared, and the last selected option will be better.
What is your true desire in your heart?
If a person regards the highest goal as the principle everywhere, he must be able to make the right decision in life.
Take a step up in the current pattern
Follow the crowd
Goal: No goal or just follow the current trend
Horizon: mainly pop culture, and the opinions of relatives and friends
Belief: Take the values ​​imperceptibly conveyed by popular culture such as "life is short and happy in time" as a model. In fact, this kind of people have no stable beliefs and are easily induced and persuaded by others, so they often call "ruin the three views"
Profit chaser
Idea man
The best
People born for ideas, their lifelong action is to pursue and defend the truth
The highest goal is to improve society and enhance human welfare
Escape the cage of implicit assumptions and discover more possibilities in life
When life is deadlocked
Find out implicit assumptions in the subconscious
Identify irrationality in implicit assumptions and make corrections
Form a new and more flexible thinking framework, on this basis, think about "possible options" and try
The four most common implicit assumptions
Track hypothesis
Those who secretly agree with the hypothesis of the track think that life is a long race, and the events of the race are set, and there are few winners. So they are easy to fall into the anxiety of competition and the fear of failure. They may not dare to try or make trial and error because they are afraid of failure. They can only run on a track that has been solidified by the outside world tremblingly.
Low correlation hypothesis
Those who secretly agree with this hypothesis believe that the various experiences of life are independent of each other and there is no connection. As Jobs said in his famous speech at Stanford University, life is a process of connecting dots and lines. Some experiences may not be of significance at the beginning, but they may play their unique role after a few years.
Rigid mind
Zero-sum game
People who secretly agree with this hypothesis will see their ability in a fixed way
People who secretly agree with the zero-sum game hypothesis are more inclined to compete for benefits from others in human-to-human competition, and rarely conceive a win-win solution.
New thinking framework, exploring new possibilities
Target suspension
Multiple targets can be tried alternately and handled flexibly
Ability grafting
Ability can be transferred, find new use space for your ability. This is a way to find the exit of life
Characteristic modification
Upgrading your “consumption interest” to a “production interest” can make your love more sustainable, and it is also a prerequisite for you to turn your love into a career.
The most effective is to act immediately
"Now" is the best time, anyway, just start
Lean Entrepreneurship Action Enlightenment Turn "unfinished" into "completed"
A thing that seems difficult, as long as you start to do it, it will become easier and easier
Getting rid of the small things that have to be done first is a good way for us to maintain a positive and calm attitude
There is a key concept in "Lean Entrepreneurship" called "Minimum Viable Product", which refers to the experimental product that can use the least resources, is the fastest produced, can perform basic functions, and can be used by users. The minimum viable product should be released as soon as possible, and then optimized based on the feedback of users using it. This process is called a "build-measure-learn" cycle.
What is a person's "minimum viable product"?
An internship experience in a certain company is not a product, but a systematic summary report based on the internship experience can be counted as a product; reading a book is not a product, but an article with in-depth and thorough analysis of the book can be counted as a product; owning a painting The skill of is not a product, but paintings created using this skill can be counted as a product.
These small products can be used as a vehicle for your personal talent display and get feedback, and then you can continue to make more complex and better products. For example, from a short essay to a long essay, from a long essay to a book; from a single comic multi-frame comic to a long comic series. In this way, your talents, reputation, influence and sense of accomplishment will be slowly cultivated.
Decompose tasks like PS, starting from the core area of ​​work
"Core thinking interval" can not be interrupted
"Task switching" can also be regarded as a classic topic in cognitive psychomechanics. Psychologists have long discovered that after switching from task A to task B, the performance of task B is significantly worse than that of non-task switching. This difference is called "conversion loss"
Reasons for formation: One is the cognitive inertia left by task A; the other is that when doing B, it is necessary to reconstruct B, and recall the relevant background and information of B. This reconstruction also takes time and may be incomplete .
Techniques for controlling and managing interruption points
We need to conduct an effective analysis of the tasks to be completed, distinguishing the "tolerant to interruption" part and the "intolerable to interruption" part. In fact, most tasks have a crucial and usually the most difficult part. This part requires us to concentrate, very focused thinking, and then crack it. Once this part is "eaten" by us, then most of this task has been completed, and the rest is some supporting and supplementary work.
Hierarchical processing of different cognitive types of work
Cognitive types refer to the different ways in which our minds process information. For example, we use one type when processing language, one type when processing visual pictures, one type when performing numerical calculations, and one type when judging space and location. Is a type. When switching between different cognitive types, people need to re-adjust, so the task conversion loss will be relatively large
For example, in the writing of this book, many chapters are accompanied by pictures. My method is to write down when some text is required. For the places where illustrations are needed, just write down the location marks and the main points of the feature, and wait until the whole chapter is written. After that, I went back to add illustrations. This is obviously more efficient than writing for a while and drawing for a while.
How to learn to face reality
Good learners, first ask yourself questions
Actively build knowledge
Any problem can be investigated in depth
Don’t be a porter of information, go deep into things through decoding
Deep learning: I don’t know but I need to know
Need to find the entrance of decoding
Not only to find the conclusion, but also to find the process
Not only do induction, but also extension
Not only to be more similar, but also to be different
Skills are the end of learning. How much knowledge can you use
The most effective way to learn: learn by doing
Three methods of knowledge training
Writing practice
Game practice
Design drill
Separate knowledge, it is difficult to answer the real reality, let different knowledge have a chemical effect
Knowledge transfer
Approaching the unknown infinity, practice thinking and become a real weapon
Simplification is a prerequisite for clear thinking
How to filter worthless information
Selected and trusted information sources
Don't chase current popular or overheated information
Focus on factual information, ignore opinions and comments
Good information sources have a good "information taste": they often have a certain content theme and scope, and provide high-quality, in-depth content. In addition, content that has been reviewed by a third party or assumed legal responsibility is also more credible, such as papers in academic journals, annual reports of listed companies, statistical yearbooks, etc.
Factual information is the basic material for our thinking. Although various opinions and comments sometimes inspire us, they can also draw our minds and make us confused. It is necessary to actively collect and obtain factual materials, based on which we can think independently and form our own unique opinions. Factual information includes not only data based on large sample surveys, but also in-depth descriptive information rich in details. The more comprehensive and in-depth factual information we obtain, the more complete and accurate our views are possible.
Retreat regularly to shield outside disturbances
Cultivate concise expression skills
Consciously cultivating one's own habit of concise expression is a way to improve thinking ability
Moderate simplicity means richer connotations
"Deletion" based on in-depth understanding: remove any unnecessary things
"Concentration" based on in-depth understanding: Concentrate and pour rich information into a "small container"
"Patternization" based on in-depth understanding: find common patterns, establish connections between phenomena, and compress and merge them
Greet the moment of "emergency" and let the subconscious work for you
Use enough information to "feed" the subconscious mind
Turn off the impossible sounds to have new possibilities
Random and chaos inspire us
Thinking can have its own shape, turning thinking into images
Break the limits of working memory
Human thinking depends on working memory, which can not only temporarily store information, but also process information. But working memory can process very little information at the same time. Once the information that needs to be processed exceeds the capacity limit of working memory, part of the information may be ignored or lost, and when thinking about problems, one will lose sight of one another.
With the help of image observation and visual representation processing, we may process information very efficiently, which is obviously helpful for solving complex problems
Images are also involved in the promotion and creation of thinking
Use appropriate graphics according to the situation
There are no easy answers in the world, only very few people can think carefully
Why we always find it difficult
We always prefer vivid concrete examples to abstract information
"Verification Bias"
Everyone is limited by their own knowledge and experience, and there is bound to be a blind spot in thinking
Once a person has formed an opinion on a certain issue, he is often just corroborating that opinion, and he can only focus on the arguments that confirm the opinion, and ignore the opposite arguments.
Matrix application
Abstract the dimension of analyzing the problem as complete as possible
For each dimension, through operations such as negation and subdivision, find out as many performance values ​​as possible to form a dimension matrix
Try various combinations between the performance values ​​of different dimensions in the dimension matrix
Effort is the kind of ability that needs learning the most. Continuously optimize your "effort" method
No outstanding longboard is the most dangerous. Focus on developing your strengths
Why the barrel theory is wrong
The barrel theory applies to teams, not individuals
Focus on one area to the end
One's own weaknesses can be resolved by forming a team with complementary strengths with others. But if you don't have an obvious advantage that you can get, who would be willing to team up with you to fight the blame?
Develop your strengths and find and meet people who complement your abilities, which will benefit you for life
Persevere without pain. Only by going deep can you develop a real interest.
Turn passive things into active
If you are doing something, don’t ask if you are interested, but do it first, and do it very deeply and attentively, and know how to turn a one-way thing into a two-way one, and make a passive one. If you become proactive, then you may be more and more flavorful and stick to it without pain. You don't need willpower to drag you away, you just go forward and run far.
Every successful person is unique, creating success instead of copying success
Understand and evaluate the value of your intellectual assets
One piece of advice: invest in new ideas or new technologies when no one cares about them, become a pioneer in a new knowledge field, and realize the "buy low and sell high" knowledge ability
Aim to complete creative works
The goal of creation can not only promote the in-depth mastery of knowledge, but also maximize your potential, and when you apply for a job or apply for further study abroad, if you can come up with a "collection", you can also significantly improve yourself Competitiveness
Facing the problem, there are pros and cons to adopting two perspectives. When doing long-term planning, people often focus on the value and significance of the goal. In terms of meaning and value, the setting of these long-term goals is not wrong, but they often lack feasibility. For the immediate things, people will more consider the feasibility and implementation steps of the matter. But this kind of thinking also has side effects. It makes us tend to do things that are more feasible and easier to achieve, while avoiding things that are more meaningful and challenging.
The five-year plan allows us to conceive of the future in a contextual and concrete way, bringing time to the front and making the future come alive. This is conducive to the specific design of ways to realize the future from the perspective of implementation. At the same time, it is precisely because of the long time span of "five years" that we will not take feasibility and convenience as the main basis for judgment. We will not do a single thing that is simple and easy to implement, but from its long-term Proceed from the value and consider the feasibility before doing it.
Accumulate credible knowledge
Training practical skills
Build a new mindset
Enhance aesthetic taste
Reflect and summarize personal experiences
Maintain and promote health
Build and maintain a relationship of mutual trust
Find and obtain scarce resources
Explore and propose original ideas and inventions
Get peak experience
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