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Changes in Physical States
Particulate Model of Matter
- 1. When heated, its particles gain energy andvibrate faster
- 2. Strong forces of attraction which hold themtogether weakens and cannot hold themtogether as tight.
- 3. The particles move further away from oneanother.
- Same process but the particles change intogaseous state without going through the liquidstate.
- 1. When losing heat, its particles lose energy.
- 2. The particles will then move slower as theforces of attraction strengthens.
- 3. The particles will then move closer together.
- Evaporation / Boiling
- 1. When liquid particles are heated, it gainsenergy.
- 2. They move and vibrate faster, moving furtheraway from one another.
- 3. Forces of attraction between the particlesare no longer strong enough to hold themtogether
- 1. When losing heat, the particles lose energy.
- 2. They move and vibrate slower and closer toeach other.
- 3. Forces of attraction between the particlesstrengthens, holding them tighter to each other.
What makes up an atom?
- An atom is electrically neutral entity made upof a positively charged nucleus with negativelycharged electrons.
- The atom itself is made up of even smallerparticles called sub-atomic particles.
- There is an equal amount of protons andelectrons in an atom, the electric charges ofthe protons and neutrons balance each other.
What is an atom?
- An atom is the smallest particle of an elementthat can exist.
- Atoms of the same element contain the samenumber of protons and those of differentelements contain different number of protons.
- -Loosely packed
-Arranged in a disorderly manner
- Sliding past each other
- Higher Kinetic energy than solid, but lower thangas
- Forces of attraction
- Strong forces between them
- Vibrate about their fixed positions
- -Closely Packed
-Arranged in a orderly manner
- Lowest Kinetic energy
- Forces of Attraction
- Very strong attraction force
- -Very far apart
-Arranged in a random pattern
- Moving at random
- Highest Kinetic energy
- Forces of attraction
- Very weak forces of attraction between them
- What are molecules?
- A molecule is made out of two or more atomscombined together.
- What makes up an ion?
- Losing electron(s)
- An atom which loses one or more electrons isnow positively charged and known as a positiveion.
- Gaining electron(s)
- An atom which gains one or more electrons isnow negatively charged and known as anegative ion.
- What is an ion?
- An ion is formed when an atom gains or loseselectrons.
- Molecules of Elements
- Molecules of elements consist of a fixed numberof the same type of atoms combined together.
- Molecules of Compounds
- Molecules of compounds consist of a fixednumber of two or more different types of atomscombined together.
- Ionic Bonding
- This occurs only between metal and non-metalatoms.
- Compounds formed by such bonds are calledionic compounds.
- Metallic Bonding
- Occurs only between metal atoms.
- 'Ionic compounds' are used when substancesconsist of metal and non-metal atoms.
- 'Molecules' is used when the substancesconsist of non-metal only.
- Covalent Bonding
- Occurs only between non-metal atoms.