Chemistry

Mattter
Matter
Matter
Ions
Ions
Ions
Chemistry
Changes in Physical States
Atoms
Ions
Particulate Model of Matter
Solids
- Melting
- 1. When heated, its particles gain energy and
vibrate faster
- 2. Strong forces of attraction which hold them
together weakens and cannot hold them
together as tight.
- 3. The particles move further away from one
another.
- Sublimation
- Same process but the particles change into
gaseous state without going through the liquid
state.
Liquid
- Freezing
- 1. When losing heat, its particles lose energy.
- 2. The particles will then move slower as the
forces of attraction strengthens.
- 3. The particles will then move closer together.
- Evaporation / Boiling
- 1. When liquid particles are heated, it gains
energy.
- 2. They move and vibrate faster, moving further
away from one another.
- 3. Forces of attraction between the particles
are no longer strong enough to hold them
together
Gas
- Condensation
- 1. When losing heat, the particles lose energy.
- 2. They move and vibrate slower and closer to
each other.
- 3. Forces of attraction between the particles
strengthens, holding them tighter to each other.
What makes up an atom?
What is an atom?
- An atom is electrically neutral entity made up
of a positively charged nucleus with negatively
charged electrons.
- The atom itself is made up of even smaller
particles called sub-atomic particles.
- There is an equal amount of protons and
electrons in an atom, the electric charges of
the protons and neutrons balance each other.
- An atom is the smallest particle of an element
that can exist.
- Atoms of the same element contain the same
number of protons and those of different
elements contain different number of protons.
Liquid
Solid
Gas
- Movement
- Vibrate about their fixed positions
- Arrangement
- -Closely Packed
-Arranged in a orderly manner
- Energy
- Lowest Kinetic energy
- Forces of Attraction
- Very strong attraction force
- Arrangement
- -Loosely packed
-Arranged in a disorderly manner
- Movement
- Sliding past each other
- Energy
- Higher Kinetic energy than solid, but lower than
gas
- Forces of attraction
- Strong forces between them
- Arrangement
- -Very far apart
-Arranged in a random pattern
- Movement
- Moving at random
- Energy
- Highest Kinetic energy
- Forces of attraction
- Very weak forces of attraction between them
Ions
Molecules
Bonds
# [Ions](https://mm.tt/1601725230)
- What are molecules?
- A molecule is made out of two or more atoms
combined together.
- What makes up an ion?
- Losing electron(s)
- An atom which loses one or more electrons is
now positively charged and known as a positive
ion.
- Gaining electron(s)
- An atom which gains one or more electrons is
now negatively charged and known as a
negative ion.
- What is an ion?
- An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses
electrons.
- Molecules of Elements
- Molecules of elements consist of a fixed number
of the same type of atoms combined together.
- Molecules of Compounds
- Molecules of compounds consist of a fixed
number of two or more different types of atoms
combined together.
- Ionic Bonding
- This occurs only between metal and non-metal
atoms.
- Compounds formed by such bonds are called
ionic compounds.
- Metallic Bonding
- Occurs only between metal atoms.
- Terms
- 'Ionic compounds' are used when substances
consist of metal and non-metal atoms.
- 'Molecules' is used when the substances
consist of non-metal only.
- Covalent Bonding
- Occurs only between non-metal atoms.
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